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(Author of " Tho History and Traditions of Ravenstonedale "). 


LONDON : John Hcywood ; Simpkin, Marshall, <fe Co. KIRKBY STEPHEN : J. W. 
Braithwaitc. APPLEBY : J. Whitehead. PEXRITH : J. Hodgson. KENDAL : 
Atkinson & Pollitt, and E. GUL SEDBERCH: Jackson & Sons, SETTLE: 
Wildman & Son. HAWES : J. Hiscock. 










HKKEWITH I send forth another atoui of English History. Encouraged 
by the reception given to the " History and Traditions of Ravenstone- 
<Lile" by the people of this district, I have ventured to call their 
attention to an adjoining dale, different though no less interesting in 
the features of its history. A modern writer has said, " It has often 
been remarked that in England, if attention is called to some little, 
unknown and obscure hamlet, a little research into its records will 
reveal to the astonishment of the interested enquirer how, in the ages 
long ago deceased, it was the home of great Historic characters and the 
centre of rich historic circumstances." These words may be applied to 
Mullerstang Forest and Pendragou Castle. When the reader bears in 
mind that the dale is not more than five miles in length, he will pro- 
bably be surprised that so much material could have been gathered 
together respecting BO small a dale. This, however, should be said, 
that it contains two or three objects of special interest ; that a river 
the Eden rises in it, and pursues its way through its bottom, receiving 
tributaries on its east and west The Episcopal Chapel is of undoubtedly 
early date, and the Castle of Pendragon, now a ruin, would be enough 
of itself to invest the dale with uncommon interest. It has been my 
aim to obtain accurate as well as ample information, and to present it 
to the reader in a reliable and attractive form. I am under deep obli- 
gation to many contributors for different kinds of information. Perhaps 
the one to whom I owe the most, Mr. G. Blades, who conversed with 
me with great interest and animation on the social life of the inhabi- 
tants in his early days, did not live to hear the delivery of the first 
lecture. He was a good almost a typical specimen of the statesman. 
He farmed his own laud. He had been born and brought up in his 
own dale, and knew every inch of it. He was conservative in his ideas. 
He did not care for railway trains, and never travelled in them ; he 


regarded them as an innovation on the good old times. Take him all 
in all, he was an intelligent and reliable man, of whom the people of any 
dale might have been proud. I desire to recognise the kind help of 
Canon Simpson, who took the chair for me at the first lecture, and 
whose well -deserved praise as an archaeologist is in all the county. 
Captain Grimshaw also sent me some valuable material, and Edward 
Heelis, Esq., and to the Rev. W. Thompson, of Sedbergh, and the Rev. 
T. Whaiton, of Stainmore, and not omitting Miss Fawcett, of The 
Thrang, I am indebted for notes and literary assistance. There are 
others that I might name, but I must not omit Mr. J. Dickenson, 
whose precise and clear recollections of the past I have found invaluable. 
The lectures were delivered in the Board School Room, Mallerstang, 
kindly lent by the School Board on each occasion. 

W. K 

Manchester Road, Bury. 
March 28, 1SS3. 


Lecture I 9 

Lecture II 23 

Lecture III 47 

Lecture IV 93 

Appendix 121 

List of Subscribers .. ..126 


are few dales in Westmorland more isolated and 
sequestered than that of Mallerstang. In no part of 
it is the bottom of the valley more than half a mile 
in breadth, and in some parts not that, with a ridge of hills 
rising, one on either side, and almost perpendicularly to a 
height of over two thousand feet. This accounts for the 
phenomenon which you have noticed in your dale, that the 
wind always blows up or down the valley. From the motion 
of the clouds you see that it may blow from the east or the 
west, but to you it is north or south. The formation of the 
grand walls of the dale, geologists tell us, is mostly carboni- 
ferous limestone and shale, and that the valley was scooped 
out by the action of running water, which has eaten down 
<leej> into the solid crust, leaving the two ridges of Wild 
Hour Fell on the one hand, and Hugh's Seat on the other. 
Could we, however, transport ourselves into the dim and 
far-reaching past, we should see those two ridge summits 
connected by a table-land instead of what we now see a 
picturesque and romantic valley. And I confess, at the out- 
set, that. I was drawn into an enquiry in'o the history and 
tradition! of your dale, not on account of its social, com- 
mercial, or political importance, but mostly owing to the 
fascination which its scenery has exercised upon my mind, 
together with its most remarkable memorial the ruin of 


Pendragon Castle which Whellan, in his "History of 
Westmorland," says, is " one of the most interesting relics 
of antiquity in the county." 

The name of the dale is, as you know, Mallerstang 
Forest, and it is a township of the parish of Kirkby Stephen. 

The etymology of the name I have been unable to find a 
trace of; and, instead of guessing what it might be, perhaps 
it woiild be better to leave it as one of the things of the 
past which we cannot know.* 

In all the old writings it is called Mallerstang Forest. 
Now in such documents we find, notably in Blackstone, 
that the word forest did not mean what we understand it to 
mean to-day, a considerable extent of land thickly covered 
with trees, but a piece of waste ground given up to game in 
fact, a chase. Whellan, in his history of this county, says, 
" This district was anciently a vast forest, inhabited by every 
description of game." And that this was the character of 
the Mallerstang Forest we have evidence. For example ; it is 
on record in the " Appleby Sessions Indictment Book," ''That 
at a petty sessions, held Michaelmas, 1665, before Sir Philip 
Musgrave, Knight and Bart., Sir John Lowther, Bart., Sir 
John Lowther the younger, Bart., and John Dalston, Esquire, 
four of His Majesty's justices of the peace, Thomas 
Knewstubb, Ralph Shaw, Henry Shaw, Thomas Whitfield, 
Adam Fothergill, Robert Guy, Richard Heseltine, and Henry 
Dixon were convicted of killing a deer within the Forest of 
Mallerstange, belonging to the honourable Ann, Countess 

* Since writing the above, I have met with the following etymology of the 
name in Whitaker's "History and Antiquities of the Deanery of Craven." He 
says : "This wild tract was, I suppose, so called Mallard Stank, the pool of the 
Mallard, referring to some early expansion of the Eden which has long since 
burst its mounds." The Rev. J. Wharton, of Stainmore, has also sent me the 
following note to the like effect : " Mallerstang (Mallard Stagnum), morass of the 
wild duck ; compare Dun-Mallard (Ullswater) and Garstang." 


Dowager of Dorset, Pembroke, and Montgomerye, who, on 
examination, confessed, and were each of them fined 20, 
according to the statute."* And tradition says that the last 
deerkeeper in Mallerstang lived in a place called Ilidding- 
house, from near which he could see a large portion of the 
forest, and when he saw anyone disturbing the deer he used 
to shout at them with such stentorian lungs, that he could 
be heard a long distance, and went by the name of "Gobe." 

Still it is evident that, at a period anterior to the seven- 
teenth century, of which I have been speaking, this dale was 
well wooded, and the trees that grew here were mostly birch 
and alder, and hazel bushes, and some oak, but not much. As 
we might expect, the land is rich in fuel for fire, from turf 
down to black hard peat, and this, until about thirty years ago, 
previous to the introduction of railways, supplied most of the 
inhabitants with fuel ; and so well did the folks keep 
themselves supplied with peat, that if they had a wet season, 
a great many of them had enough for the following year. 

The first name connected with the dale of which we 
possess any record is Uther Pendragon. He is a half- 
historical and half-mythical person; he is, so to speak, in 
the dim twilight between legend and history. It is not my 
business here to enter upon the value of oral tradition 
handed down through the ages from sire to son ; but 
of this we are sure, that the recollections of the people 
and the evidence of the oldest extant documents show that 
the castle in your midst was always called Pendragon Castle. 
Now in Geoffrey of Monmouth's British History I find a 
record of Uther Peudragon. I am aware that he is not a 

For the ;ilmvo uxtnict I have pleasure in acknowledging the kindness of Canou 
Machsll, who has the Hills' Westmorland M3S. in his possession, and from which, 
at the request of Mi.-s A. N. Hill, he copied it. Vol. iii., page 405. 


high authority ; still he lived in the early part of the twelfth 
century ; and I give you his account of Uther Pendragon, 
which, after the spirit of the age, is no doubt mixed up with 
legend. He says : - 

" Daring these transactions at Winchester [the murder of 
Aurelius Ambrosius, the brother of Uther, by poisoning] there 
appeared a star of wonderful magnitude and brightness, 
darting forth a ray at the end of which was a globe of fire in 
the form of a dragon, out of whose mouth issued forth two 
rays ; one of which seemed to stretch out itself beyond the 
extent of Gaul, the other towards the Irish Sea, and ended 
in seven lesser rays. At the appearance of this star a general 
fear and amazement seized the people ; and even Uther, 
the king's brother, who was then upon his march with his 
army into Cambria, being not a little terrified at it was very 
curious to know of the learned men what it portended. 

" Among others, he ordered Merlin [Merlin was a sage who 
was supposed to possess a measure of prophetic insight] to 
be called, who also attended in this expedition to give his 
advice in the management of the war ; and who being now 
presented before him, was commanded to discover to him 
the signification of the star. At this he burst out into tears, 
and with a loud voice cried out : ' 0, irreparable loss ! 0, 
distressed people of Britain ! Alas, the illustrious prince is 
departed ! The renowned king of the Britons, Aurelius 
Ambrosius, is dead ! whose death will prove fatal to us all 
unless God be our helper. Make haste, therefore, most noble 
Uther, make haste to engage the enemy ; the victory shall 
be yours, and you shall be king of all Britain. For the 
star and the fiery dragon under it signifies yourself, and the 
ray extending towards the Gallic coast portends that you 


shall have a most potent son, to whose power all those king- 
doms shall l>e subject over which the ray reaches. But the 
other ray signifies a daughter, whose sons and grandsons 
shall successively enjoy the kingdom of Britain.'" The 
chronicler, after having referred to the death of Aurelius 
Ambr<>siu<, which had actually taken place, proceeds: 
" Uther, the brother of the deceased king, having assembled 
the clergy of the kingdom, took the crown, and by universal 
consent was advanced to the kingdom. And remembering 
the explanation which Merlin had made of the star above 
mentioned, he commanded two dragons to be made of gold 
iu likeness of the dragon which he had seen at the ray of 
the star. As soon as they were done with wonderful nicety 
of workmanship, he made a present of one to the Cathedral 
of Winchester [there many legends of various kinds of 
King Arthur, his son, connected with this cathedral still]; 
but reserved the other for himself, to be carried along with 
him to the wars. From this time, therefore, he was called 
Uther Pendragon, which in the British tongue signifies the 
dragon's head ; the occasion of this appellation being Merlin's 
predicting from the appearance of a dragon that he should be 
a king." 

The preceding has a mythical cast, and any historian would 
accept it with caution ; still the substratum of it may be true. 
In the year of our Lord 420, after the Romans had left the 
island, we know that the Britons, no longer overawed by the 
presence of the Roman legions, refused to acknowledge the 
authority of the provincial and municipal governors of Rome, 
and restored the power of the ancient chiefs under the 
supremacy of an elective monarch, who bore the title of 
Pendragon, and administered the affairs of the central govern- 


ment. The word pen is British for head, and dragon for 
leader or chief. Dr. Miluer Fothergill, in writing to me on 
this subject, says : " Pendragon was the generalissimo of the 
united Cymric Tribes. Uter was in all probability the 
Pendragon of the Cumbrian Cymri who long held their own 
against the tide of Saxons." And I am disposed to accept 
this view of the chief from whom the castle here takes its 
name. For is there anything fabulous or even improbable in 
the fact that such a monarch would build a stronghold in 
this valley, which is the best outlet from the north into the 
Craven district and the midlands of England ] And if he 
did, would it not be likely to be remembered 1 Moreover, 
Whitaker, after speaking of Pendragou Castle, proceeds : 
" With respect to the name, which, among authentic records, 
first appears in an inquisition of the 8th Edward II. [1314-5], 
I shall only observe that, as this place was certainly included 
in the limits of the Strath Cluyd Britons, a fortress might 
really have been erected on the spot by Uther. It is easy 
to defer too little as well as too much to remote tradition.' 
It is not probable that Uther Pendragon often lived here, or 
that the original castle was intended to be other than a keep 
in a most important military position. 

Nicholson and Burn, in their "History of Westmorland," 
give quite another and a different account of Uther Pen- 
dragon, and here is what they say : 

" The Castle of Mallerstang, called Pendragon Castle, is 
said to have been built about the time of Vortigern by Uter 

So far this agrees with Geoffrey of Monmouth. The 
writer proceeds, "Who this Uter was may be difficult to 
ascertain. There was a family of the name of Ughtred of 
ancient time ; and during the time of the Saxons in England 

MAI.I.F.KSTAM. ioi:i>r. 15 

before the Norman conquest there was a famous warrior of 
the name of Uchtred, son of Waltlieof, Earl of Northumber- 
land, who, with a much inferior army, gave the Scots under 
their king Malcolm a most signal overthrow, for which victory 
Kin- Kt helred gave to Uchtred his daughter, the Princess 
Kl-iva, in marriage, and with her the counties of Northum- 
berland and York for a portion. Pendragon seems not to be 
properly the name of a man, but an epithet only, describing 
his warlike quality. Pen, it is well known, signifies a moun- 
tain or something that is great, and dragon hath been applied 
in all ages to military persons." 

The radical defect of Dr. Burns' account of Utcr Pendragon 
is, that the link is wanting that should connect Uchtred, the 
Saxon warrior, with the castle here. He received with his 
wife, we are told, Northumberland and York for a portion. 
Pendragon Castle is in neither of those counties, and the 
name of its founder was Uther and not Uchtred. Moreover, 
there is a tradition current in the district that the Saxons 
besieged the castle, and, considering it impregnable, resorted 
to treachery, and poisoned the well which is still pointed 
out to visitors and that Uther and his garrison were 
poisoned, owing to drinking of its water. This is as much as 
1 have been able to glean of Uther Pendragon. All are 
amved, however, that he lived in ancient British or early 
Saxon times; and as an evidence of how thoroughly his 
existence has entered into the traditions of the people, I have 
it, on the authority of Canon Simpson, that to this day the 
ghost of Old Uther is said to appear on Shap Fell. He was 
the first chief of this dale. Few were the inhabitants here ; 
indeed we have evidence that the only inhabitants were those 
who lived in the castle. Solemn must have been the scene ; 
the castle, rude and massive, set in a forest of trees, the 
hiding-place of the wild boar and the wolf. 


The first lord of the manor, properly so called, of whom 
we have any record, is Hugh de Moreville, a much less 
undefined person than Uther Pendragon. The highest point 
of the eastern ridge is called Hugh's Seat, where Anne, 
Countess of Pembroke, erected a stone pillar, and upon it 
the inscription is cut, A. P. 1664. There is a tradition 
current amongst the people that upon this mountain he 
concealed himself during a Scotch invasion. Another that I 
have met with is that after he had been hunting he sat down 
there and partook of refreshment. This is incontrovertible, 
that he was one of the four knights who murdered the 
Archbishop Thomas a Becket, in Canterbury Cathedral, in 
the year 1170. The other knights engaged in the bloody 
deed were Reginald Fitzurse, Richard Brito, and William de 
Tracy, but with them at present we are not concerned, except 
that this should be said in extenuation of all, that they 
received their first hint from the king, Henry II., when he 
was holding his court at Bur, near Bayeux, at which they 
were present. Now a hint from the king, which could not 
be easily misimderstood, amounted to a command to loyal 
knights. They crossed the Channel, proceeded to Canterbury, 
secured an interview with a Becket, which they did not wish 
to be of a pacific character, and after mutual recrimination 
in the palace, on which I need not enter, the archbishop fled 
for refuge into the cathedral, whither he was followed by his 
assailants, and there, in the deepening twilight of December 
29th, 1170, he was murdered. I am indebted to Dean 
Stanley's " Historical Memorials of Canterbury " for the 
following facts ; and every allusion to De Moreville is, to his 
credit, that whatever blame may be awarded to the 
perpetrators of this crime, the lightest share must rest upon 
him. Dean Stanley, after referring to the other knights, 


eays, "Moreville was of higher rank and office than the others. 
He was this very year Justice Itinerant of the counties of 
Northumberland and Cumberland, where he inherited the 
barony of Burgh -on-the-Sands, and other possessions, from his 
father Roger and his grandfather Simon. He was, likewise, 
forester of Cumberland, owner ofihe Castle of Knareaborough, 
and added to his patemal property that of his wife, Helwise 
de Stute-ville." The following is the next allusion: "He, 
the archbishop, in his turn complained of the insults he had 
received. First came the grand grievances of the preceding 
week. ' They have attacked my servants, they have cut off 
my sumpter mule's tail, they have carried off the casks of 
wine that were the king's own gift.' It was now that Hugh 
de Moreville, the gentlest of the four, put in a milder answer : 
' Why did you not complain to the king of these outrages ? 
Why do you take upon yourself to punish them by your own 
authority?' The archbishop turned round sharply upon 
him. ' Hugh, how proudly you lift up your head ! When 
the rights of the Church are violated I shall wait for no 
man's permission to avenge them. I will give to the king the 
things that are the king's, but to God the things that are God's. 
It is my business, and I alone will see to it.' " The historian 
adds : " For the first time in the interview the archbishop 
had assumed an attitude of defiance." 

Later on in the account we read : " Hugh of Horsea 
planted his foot on the neck of the corpse, thrust his sword 
into the ghastly wound, and scattered his brains over the 
pavement. ' Let us go ; let us go,' he said, in conclusion, 
' the traitor is dead ; he will rise no more.' This was the 
final act. One only of the four knights had struck no blow. 
Hugh de Moreville throughout retained the gentler disposi- 
tion for which he was distinguished, and contented himself 


with holding back at the entrance of the transept the crowds 
who were pouring iu through the nave." 

After the murder the four knights hastened to Saltwood, 
where they stayed for the night; and tradition states that 
they proceeded together to the residence of Hugh de Moreville 
at Knaresborough, where they remained for twelve months. 
During this year he was discontinued from his office of Justice 
Itinerant in the counties of Northumberland and Cumber- 
land. This was done to appease popular indignation, rather 
than as a punishment inflicted by the king ; for within the 
first two years of the murder the murderers were living at 
Court in Normandy 011 familiar terms with the king, and 
constantly joined him in the pleasures of the chase, or else 
hawking and hunting in England. And in the first year of 
King John, Hugh de Moreville is recorded as paying twenty- 
five marks, and three palfreys for holding his Court as 
Justice Itinerant in the counties of Northumberland and 
Cumberland, so long as Helwise, his wife, shall continue in 
a secular habit. He procured about the same period a 
charter for a fair and market at Kirkoswald, and died shortly 
afterwards, leaving two daughters. There is a legend that 
he and the other knights went on a pilgrimage of expiation 
to the Holy Land, and died there ; but it is a myth that 
arose out of the superstitions that, like a nimbus, gathered 
around the name and memory of Saint Thomas a Becket. 
Hugh de Moreville visited the north after having been a 
spectator of the tragedy, for in all the representations of the 
martyrdom, in painted windows or iu ancient frescoes, Hugh 
de Moreville is stationed aloof from the massacre. On his 
way from Knaresborough he must have passed through this 
dale, and, no doubt, rested for awhile in Pendragon Castle. 
In strange contrast were the grand and sombre surroundings 

MA!.l.i:itSTAX<; FOREST. 19 

of this Wcstmorluinl <l;ilc to the scenes of excitement which 
lie had previously witnessed. Would that some Boswell had 
been with him in the stronghold, and given to us a few of 
his spoken thoughts. However, your mountain bearing the 
name of Hugh's Seat will ever associate you with one, 
despite the crime, of noble spirit and bearing. 

We learn that the sister of Hugh de Moreville, named 
Maud, married Wm. de Veteripont, with whom he received 
the manor and estate of the county. But Henry II., to 
appease the indignation of his subjects occasioned by the 
murder of the Archbishop, not only suspended him tem- 
porarily from the office of Justice Itinerant of the counties 
of Northumberland and Cumberland, but confiscated the 
property, and granted the castle of Appleby to the custody 
of Gospatric, son of Orme, but the barony was retained by 
the crown till King John restored it to the family by grant- 
ing it to Robert de Veteripout. He died in 1228, and was 
succeeded by John de Yeteripont, who died about the year 
1242, leaving his infant son, Robert de Veteripont, a ward to 
the king, and in the guardianship of the Prior of Carlisle. 
Now we learn that during the minority of Robert de 
Veteripont the Prior of Carlisle permitted great waste to be 
committed, and particularly on an inquisition thereof being 
taken, it was found that the Vale of Mallerstang was much 
decayed by the multitude of vaccaries. Vaccaries mean 
large enclosed cow pastures. During the period of the 
minority of Robert de Veteripont it is evident that different 
persons had made vaccaries in the forest, and had probably 
erected houses in them of a very simple and primitive kind. 
It would appear that game also had been to some extent 
destroyed by one Roger, the forester, and other archers from 
Lundsdale. From one point of view the breaking in upon 


the forest was a deterioration of it ; but from another, and a 
higher, it was one of the steps of advancement in this district 
towards civilisation. 

The name of the lord of the manor changes again. One 
of the daughters of Robert de Veteripont married Roger 
de Clifford, of Clifford Castle on the Wye in Herefordshire, 
who becomes lord of the manor, and we are told that 
after the death of Roger de Clifford in llth of Edward I. 
[1283] it was found by inquisition that the forest of Maller- 
stang in herbage and agistment, and all other issues, was 
worth yearly <44 7s. 6d. 

From the authority of Mr. Geo. Blades, an aged man in 
the dale (now deceased), I learn that the same sum is paid to 
the lord of the manor to-day, and that it has never varied 
much. Two pieces of land have been sold by the lord of the 
manor, and these are not subject to the lord's rent ; they 
are Shor Gill and Moor Riggs. To make up for this deficiency 
of lord's rent, encroachments have been made upon the 
common, and these have been charged lord's rent. The 
value of money we know has diminished greatly, still the 
loss has been borne by the lord of the manor. 

And now passing over many of the successive lords of the 
manor who did not specially identify themselves with this 
dale and it is mainly in this connection it is our business 
to regard them I come to Anne, Countess of Pembroke. 
George Clifford, the Earl of Cumberland, was born in 
Brougham Castle, August 8th, 1558. He signalised himself 
in the service of Queen Elizabeth, and was a person of 
great activity of body, sprightliness of wit, and civility of 
demeanour. He was one of the commissioners who tried 
and condemned the unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots, and 
one of the four earls present at her execution. He died, 


leaving an only daughter, Anne, born in Skipton Castle, 
January 30th, 1591. She married first, Richard Sackville, 
Lord Buckhurst, afterwards Earl of Dorset, by whom she 
had issue Margaret and Isabella ; the latter of whom was 
married to James Compton, Earl of Northampton, by whom 
she had six children, who all died without issue, so that 
Margaret became the sole heiress of the Clifford family. Her 
second husband was Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and 
Montgomery, whom she survived from 1649 to 1675, when 
she died, having spent her long widowhood in the north of 
England in repairing her castles and in works of public and 
private charity. Weekly distribution and daily alms were 
given at her gate. The consumption of her household she 
regularly purchased with ready money in the towns and 
villages around her, seldom procuring anything from London, 
being desirous the county might benefit by her. Many of 
her diaries in which she regularly entered the occurrences 
of the day down to the minutest details, and the names of 
all strangers that came to the house, whether on business or 
otherwise, are very amusing. Evidently she was a lady of 
strong character, and her mind was rather of the masculine 
than the feminine type. In treating of the castle and the 
chapel I shall have to refer to this lady again. 

After the death of the Countess of Pembroke her elder 
daughter, Margaret, became sole heir of the Clifford family. 
She was espoused in 1629 by John Lord Tufton, afterwards 
Earl of Thanet, a title that had been conferred upon his 
father by Charles I., in 1628. The estates and title next 
devolved upon his brother Rupard, who died unmarried in 
1 683, when he was succeeded by Thomas, the fourth brother, 
who established his claim to the title and barony of Lord 
Clifford, first granted to his maternal ancestor, Richard de 


Clifford, in A.D. 1300. He died in 1729, when he was 
succeeded by his nephew, Sackville Tufton, who was suc- 
ceeded by his son of the same name, who died in Italy, 
March, 1786, when his son, Sackville Tufton, the ninth earl, 
succeeded; and he, dying without issue in 1825, was suc- 
ceeded by his brother, Charles Tufton, the tenth earl, who 
died unmarried in April, 1832, when the title and estates 
descended to his brother, Henry Tufton, the eleventh earl, 
who died unmarried, 12th June, 1849. After his death the 
title became extinct, and all his estates passed to Sir Richard 
Tufton, naturalised 1849, created a bai'onet, 1851, and died 
20th June, 1871. He was succeeded by his son, Sir Henry J. 
Tufton, who was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Westmorland 
in 1881, and in the same year elevated to the peerage as 
Baron Hothfield of Hothfield, by the present Government. 
We wish the present lord of the manor long life and great 
enjoyment of the honour which has been deservedly put 
upon him. In 1880, during the contested election, we learnt 
that on this side of the county he was regarded with enthu- 
siasm. He was born on the 4th of June, 1844, and is now 
(1882) consequently in his thirty-ninth year. 


The Hritish birds that tunod their lyres 

To Arthur and Pendragon's praise. Sir Wallet' Scott. 

I SHALL now cull your attention to Pendragon Castle. 
Every student of history knows that the castle occupied 
a very considerable place in the life of the people in the 
early and middle ages. Some of them, like your own, were 
not baronial residences, so much as strongholds ; it was 
almost impossible for them to be taken : a few men barred 
and bolted within could defy whole armies without. 

They were usually built on an eminence, or on the bank 
of a river which could be made to serve wholly or partially 
the purpose of a moat : as in the case of your own castle 
which is built on the eastern bank of the Eden. If it be 
true to its name it was built originally by Uther Pendragon ; 
and has been for ages a grim grand keep. Would that we 
could tell from precise historical data how long. Canon 
Simpson, who is an authority in such matters, says, in notes 
which he contributed to a local magazine, "There was 
doubtless a castle or stronghold here long before the Conquest 
which its then owner, Uther, endeavoured to strengthen by 
drawing around it the waters of the Eden." 

The form of the original castle was very different from 
that of the present ruin of the last restoration which took 
place, as we shall see further on, in the year 1G60 upon 


much older foundations. Probably the pre-Xormau castle was 
a round tower, though this can of course be but conjecture. 
Whitaker, in his " History of Craven," gives it as his opinion 
"that the castles of Brugh, Appleby, Pendragon, and 
Brougham were built by Ranulph de Meschines, the knight 
to whom William the Conqueror gave this part of the 
country. Brough to fortify the pass of Stain more ; Pen- 
dragon that of Mallerstang ; Appleby, for its central as well 
as strong and beautiful situation in the barony ; and Brougham 
to guard its northern boundary." " Pendragon Castle," he 
further observes, " equally romantic in name and situation, 
though manifestly of the same age, is of a different form 
from all the rest. It has been one of those low square 
Norman castles, which having had no bailey [for the 
benefit of the unlearned in such terms I observe that a 
bailey is the space immediately within a surrounding wall 
and the castle] enclosed a small area, and had many dimin- 
utive apartments opening inward." Canon Simpson is of 
opinion that these apartments or recesses were probably used 
as sleeping rooms, a curtain or screen being drawn before 
them, and thus separating them from the more public apart- 
ment. The day will come, perhaps, when the stones and 
rubbish which at present till up the enclosure will be 
removed, and the clearance will, in my opinion, reveal some 
interesting facts with respect to the building.* 

We learn from inquisitions that were taken that Robert 
de Veteripont became ward of the Prior of Carlisle in the 
26th year of Henry III. [1241], and that he so far 

* Robert Rennison, our well-known Ravenstonedale postman, told me a few 
weeks ago, that when he was a boy, whilst he and Robert Hutchinson were 
climbing amongst the ruins of the castle one moonlight night in search of young 
owls, and they obtained two, they picked up three copper coins ; he docs not 
remember what they were, nor their date : probably they were modern. 


neglected his duties as to permit great waste to be com- 
mitted on his estates; and particularly that <>f the Vale of 
Mallerstang, was much decayed by the multitude of 
vaccaries, i.e., cow pastures, and chiefly by the archery of 
"Roger the forester." The name of this man still lingers 
amongst the people as an individual of strong and defiant 
character. Probably if we were living nearer to the period, 
there would be current anecdotes told concerning him, just 
as there still are in the neighbourhood of Sherwood Forest 
of " bold Robin Hood." 

There were also, we are informed by the same authority, 
other archers of Lundsdale ; also pnrprestures, i.e., encroach- 
ments, were made in many places within the forest and in 
the boundary of the forest, by sufferance of the said Prior 
after he took upon him the guardianship. 

" Iii the 8th Edward II. [1314] the jurors find that in the 
Vale of Mallerstang there is one castle called Pendragon, 
with a vaccary held by Andrew de Harcla of the rent of 
6d. a year." In that year 1314 Robert de Clifford, the 
owner of Pendragon, died fighting for the king at Bannock- 
bnrn. His eldest son was at that time about 15 years old. 
The strong probability, therefore, is, that Andrew de Harcla 
was invited by the Clifford family to take charge of Pen- 
dragon Castle during his minority, at a rent that was 
merely nominal. 

Roger de Clifford came of age in 1321, but fought against 
the king in his adherence to the Earl of Lancaster at 
Borough Bridge, 1322, when he was taken prisoner, and his 
lands forfeited to the king. He died in 1327. 

Then again in the 1st Edward III. [1327] the jurors find 
that belonging to Roger de Clifford, deceased, was the castle 
of Pendragon, together with the forest of Mallerstang to the 


same belonging ; that the buildings of the castle cannot be 
extended, for that the costs of maintaining the same exceed 
the profits thereof. Also that in the said forest there are 
divers vaccaries, and other profits of herbage in the hands 
of tenants at will, who pay yearly at Martinmas and 
Whitsuntide, 30. 

Anne, Countess of Pembroke, relates in her memoirs that 
" Idonea de Veteripont, one of the daughters and co-heiresses 
of Robert de Veteripont, Avho married Roger de Leyburn, 
made a great part of her residence in Westmorland at 
Brugh Castle, under Stanemore, and at Pendragon Castle in 
Mallerstang, and the latter place i.e., Pendragon Castle 
was her chief and beloved habitation." From this we may 
conclude that she loved retirement, and to be under the 
influence of your grand hills. She died here in Pendragon 
Castle in 1334. Also at this castle, we leai-n from Whitaker. 
in 1337 Edward Baliol was honourably received, on his 
expulsion out of Scotland, by Robert de Clifford, and enter- 
tained with magnificent hunting in the adjoining forest of 
Mallerstang. The lord of the manor in this way most fully 
shewed the honours of hospitality to one who makes himself 
momentarily conspicuous in history by his daring and 
successful invasion of Scotland, then under the Regency of 
Randolph, Earl of Morey, in 1332. Accompanied by some 
English noblemen bent on recovering their forfeited estates 
in Scotland, he landed with a few hundred followers at 
Kinghorn, in Fifeshire, defeated the Earl of Fife, pushed 
boldly into the country, and in Duppliu moor, in Perthshire, 
routed with immense slaughter an army upwards of ten 
times more numerous than his own. On the 24th September, 
seven weeks from the date of his landing, he was crowned 
King of Scotland at Scone. He had only enjoyed the kingly 


dignity for about three months when he was surprised in 
his camp at Annan, and nearly lost his life, as well as the 
crown he had so recently assumed. Subsequently he was 
expelled from Scotland. We arc not told how long he 
remained an honoured visitor in Pendragon Castle, enjoying 
the hospitality of Robert de Clifford, but during the visit 
the forest was gay by day with magnificent hunting, and 
the castle brilliant by night. 

In 1341 the castle was burnt down by the Scots. This 
was in the l~>th year of Edward III., during a period of fierce 
hostility between the two kingdoms, which ended in the 
defeat of the Scottish army at Nevil's Cross, near Durham, 
and the taking of the Scottish king, David II., prisoner. 
The castle was restored, however, and in the year 1541 was 
again reduced to ruin. The cause of its ruin on this occasion 
I cannot ascertain ; it took place in the 32ud year of the 
reign of Henry VIII. Henry, son of Henry Lord Clifford, 
and Ann St. John, his wife, was lord of the manor. He was 
afterwards created Earl of Cumberland, by Henry VIII., and 
Knight of the Garter. He was several times Lord Warden 
of the Marches, and behaved with great nobleness and 
gallantry in the wars against Scotland ; and possibly the 
castle was on this occasion also demolished by the Scots. To 
this ruin Camdeu refers in his history. And when you 
remember that the materials for his history came no lower 
than 1589, you will see clearly that he became conversant 
with the ruin in the lifetime of those who must have 
remembered the demolition. He savs : "The noble river 
Eden, called by Ptolemy, I tuna, rising in Yorkshire (?), has 
at first only a small stream ; but increasing gradually by the 
confluence of several little rivers seeks a passage through 
these mountains to the north-west, by Pendragon Castle, to 


which age has left nothing but the name and a great heap 
of stones." In a note to the above, Edward Gibson, who 
translated and edited the work in 1695, says: "Pcndragon 
Castle was not a great heap of stones in Mr. Camden's time ; 
when the walls, being four yards in thickness (with battle- 
ments upon them), were standing till the year 1660, that 
the most noble lady, the Lady Anne Clifford, Countess- 
Dowager of Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery, repaired 
this ancient home of her ancestors, with three more castles 
which she had in this county, and removing frequently from 
one to another, kept hospitality and diffused her charity 
all over the country. This castle is washed on the east 
by the river Eden ; and on the other -sides there are great 
trenches, as if the first builder had intended to draw the 
water round it. But the attempt proved ineffectual, from 
whence they have an old rhyme hereabouts- 
Let Uter Pendragon do what he can, 
The river Eden will run where it ran." 

There are two or three statements in this extract which 
need remark, and the first is, that Gibson is somewhat severe 
on his author in saying that it was not a heap of stones 
possibly it was not in the most literal sense ; for in the in 
scription that appeared over the castle gate we learn that 
"it had layen ruinous without timber or any covering ever 
since the year 1541." From this it would appear clearly that 
the castle was uninhabitable, which is probably what Cam- 
den meant by the expression " a heap of stones." Gibson 
also says that the castle is washed on the east by the river 
Eden ; it is on the west. The well known couplet as at 
present rendered by the people is : 

" Let Uter Pendragon do what he can 
Eden will run where Eden ran." 


This saving is frequently appropriated and applied to 
express determination and firmness. Carefully I have 
enquired into its history, and have discovered merely, that 
it is very ancient. The objection to the possibility of the 
attempt that occurs to the visitor is, that the bed of the 
river is at present very much below the castle. It is possible 
however, that it has worn down its bed during the last 1,000 
or 1,300 years. Undoubtedly the moat is only partly made. 
Dr. Simpson says " Uter endeavoured to strengthen the 
stronghold by drawing around it the waters of the Eden. 
The stream which is sometimes much swollen and rapid was 
however, too much for him, the dam which he had made 
across the river was washed down, and the memory of this 
attempt to turn the water out of its usual course, only re- 
mains in the old proverb." Aune, Countess of Pembroke, 
restored the castle in 1660 A.D., and in her diary she says 
she formed the design of restoring it so early as the year 1615 
for a library for Mr. C. Wolridge. Ou its restoration, the 
following inscription cut upon a stone was over the entrance 
irate "This Peudragon Castle was repayred by the Lady 
Ann Clifford, Countess dowager of Pembroke, Dorsett, and 
Moiitgomerie, and Vescie, High Sheriffesse, by inheritance, of 
the county of Westmorland, and Lady of the honour of 
Skipton in Craven, in the year 1660 so as she came to lye 
in it herself for a little while in October, 1661 ; after it had 
laycn ruinous without timber or any covering ever since the 
year 1541. Isaiah Chap. 58, ver. 12. God's name be 

She also built a bridge here over the Eden; and iii 1662 
we learn from her memoirs " a wall of lime and stone round 
the piece of ground she had caused to be taken in being 
quarters high, and ninety roods in compass, with two gates, 


and within it a stable, coach house, brew house, bake house, 
wash house, and a little chamber over the gate that is arched." 
The buildings here referred to were outside the castle moat ; 
and some of them seem to have stood on the north side of 
the gate going into the field in which the castle stands, and 
perhaps, some of them in the field where the well is, not far 
from the river. 

The castle was afterwaids dismantled by Thomas, Earl 
of Thanet, in the year 1685. Its necessity as a keep 
had ceased to exist, and so he unroofed it, and taking 
possession of the lead which was worth something in those 
days, and all other valuables, left the castle a ruin. After 
this, in the estimation of the inhabitants, it was little more 
than " a heap of stones," and became, henceforth, a quarry 
from which stones were taken for building purposes on the 
estates of the lord of the manor. Hence, there may be seen 
at the present day, stones built into the walls and door ways 
of cow houses, which by their chiselled work, shew their 
former relation to the castle. Some of the men and women, 
however, of the last generation saw the stones carted away 
from the ruin with regret. In our day, the work of further 
demolition, except that which is the work of time, has ceased. 
Time, however, is an invisible but constant destroyer ; and 
we cannot but be in sympathy with the lines of Wordsworth's 
dream of its restoration. He says : 

" How glad Pendragon though the sleep 
Of years be on her ! she shall reap 
A taste of this great pleasure viewing, 
As in a dream her own renewing."* 

We wonder whether this dream will ever become a reality. 
A reality such as this castle was is impossible ; neither 

* From song at the feast at Brougliam Castle. 

MAI.I.KHSTANi; 1<>K1>T. 31 

would it be desirable. The ruined stronghold reminds us 
more forcibly than any other object of the dark ages. Mr. 
Fronde, in his able history, recognises church bells as " the 
peculiar creation of the mediaeval age." Bell music, how- 
ever, has a place, and a charming place in our social life 
to-day which \ve should not like to part with. "Whereas a 
feudal stronghold is an anachronism in the age in which we 
live, and whilst it suggests the cavalcade and the chase, it 
has another side, and tells of unsettled times, of strife, of 
lawlessness, of insecurity of life and property, and of the 
thraldom of the people. Pendragon Castle, which seems to 
sigh for restoration, rebuilt, and the abode of domestic 
comfort, such as every truly English home is, would be a 
splendid crown to its dark and sullen history. And the 
flag which I saw last summer floating over Appleby Castle, 
would look equally well floating over one of the restored 
towers of its sister at Pendragon. 

We learn from Mac-hell's MSS. that in 1664 Robert 
Braithwaite, gentleman, lived at Pendragon Castle, four 
years after its restoration, and that his wife threw herself 
off the top of Pendragon Castle, and destroyed her life. We 
also learn from the Kirkby Stephen church register that in 
the year 1648 there was buried at Kirkby Stephen Richard 
Darby, slain by Robert Atkinson, Bluegrass, Mallcrstang, 
and that he slew him in the next bottom close, above Pen- 
dragon Castle, on Lord's day in the afternoon. Tradition 
says that the occasion was a duel, and the weapon used, a 

So far as I can learn this is all we know of Pendragon 
Castle, the foundation stones of which have for so many 
centuries listened to the babbling waters of the Edcu. " I 
have seen, says the ancient bard of Mallerstang, the walls 


of Pendragon, but they were desolate. The music had 
resounded in the halls ; but the voice of its people is heard 
no more. The stream of Eden had removed from its place, 
by the fall of the walls. There the thistle shook its lovely 
head. The moss whistled in the wind. The fox looked 
from the windows, and the rank grass of the wall waved 
round his head. Desolate is the dwelling of Pembroke ; silence 
is in the house of her Fathers ! " * The desolation here 
referred to has been the source of poetic inspiration to 
many, from one of which I will make a selection. It is 
from an old MS. book written by Mr. Garthwaite, who 
was a schoolmaster in Mallerstang 60 years ago. The poem 
is signed H. H. 

In a fair vale where sinuous Eden rolls, 
The vestige of an ancient castle stands ; 
The asylum of him whose name it bears, 
When civil discords raged within this land. 

Oft has this lofty dome re-echoed back 
The clarion's sound ; delight of martial minds. 
Within these walls has once been hung 
Such tapestry as adorns a Prince's court. 
Its tables oft have groaned with massy plate ; 
And sumptuous feasts prepared for purpled guests. 
Oft has the shining goblet graced the board 
Filled with the liquor of Hesperian fruit. 
Embossed in gold, here, forms of heroes stood, 
Whose valiant feats the sculptured metal told. 
Helmets and spears torn from the conquered foe 
The boasted trophies of these martial knights 
In this grey dome once cast an awful glare. 

But ah the fate of sublunary things, 
That lofty pile with turrets in the clouds 
Whose well cemented walls thickness immense, 
And sullen doors on massy pillars hung, 

* From Garthwaite's M8S. composed or copied by Fawcctt Hunter, of Fell 
End, Ravenstonedale, dated 1707. 


That op'ning jarred harsh discord to the i \\- 
Could bid defiance to the strongest foe, 
And all the battering engines of the age, 
Now falls a victim to all-conquering time. 
Bleak winter's howling blasts of wind and rain 
Koch after each succeeding to the change, 
Compel at last these adamantine walls, 
To shudder down loud thundering to the moon. 

I shall now call your attention to the Episcopal Chapel 
in this township. That the building is ancient is un- 
questionable, but the date of its erection I cannot learn. 
.Miss Fawcett, in a valuable communication which I have 
received from her on the subject, says : " I have heard 
my father [the late Rev. J. Fawcett] say that he believed it 
was built about 1311." That would be in the reign of 
Edward II., when Robert de Clifford, who was afterwards 
slain in the battle of Bannockburn, was the lord of the 
manor. Canon Simpson, it seems to me, gives the obvious 
reason of the original erection of the chapel. He says : 
" Owing to the distance of the parish church, provision was, 
no doubt, made at Mallerstang, as was usual in such outlying 
places, to have prayers said in some, convenient place by a 
layman ; the clergyman of the parish, himself, attending on 
certain special occasions to preach a sermon or administer 
the holy communion. The building was very probably used 
on week days as a schoolroom, and the prayers said by the 
schoolmaster." In confirmation of the foregoing, as it affects 
modern days, Miss Fawcett has informed me that her father 
had told her that Dr. Robinson not unfrequently sent him 
over from Ravenstonedale, on a Sunday, some time before he 
was ordained, to read the prayers and a homily in the chapel 

Over the porch of the door of the chapel, there used 


formerly to be a stone with this inscription : " This chapel was 
new repaired and covered with bleto slates, in 1768." From this 
we infer that the roof was thatched before ; indeed of this 
there is undoubted evidence. Beneath this stone there was 
another, which the wind blew down some years ago, and was 
replaced by the Rev. R. Robinson, the late incumbent, when 
he likewise re-slated the roof on the front side of the chapel, 
and took down and rebuilt the east wall, at his own cost. 
The present stone bears exactly the same inscription as the 
old one, and is as follows : " This Chappie of Mallerstang, 
after it had layne ruinous and decayed some 50 or 60 years, 
was newe repayred by the Lady Anne Clifford, Countesse 
Dowager of Pembroke, Dorsett, and Montgomery, in the 
year 1663; who also endowed the same with lands, which 
she purchased in Cawtley near Sedbergh to the yearly value 
of eleven pounds for ever." 

We learn from this that "the Chapel had layne ruinous and 
decayed some 50 or 60 years." Probably this was largely 
owing to the unsettled state of things during the Reformation. 
Ecclesiastically, things had got out of gear. The old order 
had not yet changed, giving place to the new. Meanwhile, 
the condition of the people must have been sad in the 
extreme. There was no other place of worship for them to 
go to, and they must have been, in the language of scripture, 
as "sheep not having a shepherd." And all honour to Lady 
Anne, Countess of Pembroke, that she pitied the destitute 
condition of the people here by restoring the Chapel, and 
making provision for the permanent settlement of a minister, 
who should conduct divine service and teach the children to 
read and write ; and in those days, when there was no School 
Board as you have to-day, such a provision was a great boon. 
The original deed, under the hand of the Countess of 


Pembroke, now in the possession of the Atkinson family at 
Dale Foot, is as follows : 

"Whereas 1 lately purchased eertain lands in Cawtley 
near Sedbergh in the County of York, to the yearly value of 
XI 1 or thereabouts nhich lands I have -riven unto and 
settled upon the Chapel of Mallerstang in the County of 
Westmorland for ever, for and to the use and maintenance 
of a reader to read divine service, aud to teach and instruct 
the children of the dale of Mallerstang aforesaid to read and 
write, which charge hath been aud is still diligently and care- 
fully performed by Rowland Wright, clerk, to the general 
good satisfaction of the neighbourhood there ; and my desire 
is and I do hereby recommend the same to such of my heirs 
as shall succeed me in my lands of inheritance in the said 
County of Westmorland, and to any others whom it may 
concern that the said Rowland Wright may be continued 
in the said charge during his life, and enjoy the yearly 
profits of the said lands, and other the appurtenances 
belonging to the said Chapel of Mallerstaug, he behaving 
himself (as he hath hitherto done) without any just cause of 

"Anne Pembroke, 
"Brougham Castle, this 22 of Novr., 1667. 

" Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of 
"Robert Braithwaite, 
" Geo. Sedgwick, 
"Edmond Barker." 

The Rowland Wright mentioned aforesaid, I am inclined 
to think, was the first one appointed under the new order of 
things, and that, too, after a lengthened interval of pastoral 



neglect. And I am also inclined to think that the appoint- 
ment was made by Lady Anne, and that the endowment of 
11 was a subsequent provision towards his support. 

I learn from Mr. Garthwaite's papers that in the year 1671 
Robert Moore was appointed minister. He was, I should 
suppose, the immediate successor of Rowland Wright, whose 
name is mentioned in the aforesaid deed of endowment 
dated 1667. And it maybe interesting to you to know that 
the folllowing inscription was on the pulpit in the Mallerstang 

Chapel : 

ROBKHT MOORE scripsit 1691. 

" And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood which he made 
for preaching." Neh. viii. 4. 

" And he read in the Book of the Law of God distinctly, and gave 
the sense and caused them to understand the reading." Neb. viil 8. 

Robert Moore, minister, came anno 1671. 

This pulpit was replaced by a pulpit and reading-desk 
made in the year 1798, and which is the one, I presume, 
now in use. 

I have also the following list through the kindness of Miss 
Fawcett. It is headed, " A book of yearly wages payable to 
the Chapel of Mallerstang, written by Mr. Robert Moore, 
June the 15th, 1672," as follows : 


s. d. 

Henry Garth waite .......... 1 8 

Henry Hebden .............. 1 2 

Thos. Fothergill 
John Atkinson 
GabL Fothergill . 
Henry Shaw 
Thos. Wright 

1 8 

1 1 


1 1 

1 8 

9 4 


s. d. 

Thos. Knewstubb and 
John his Brother 

Paul Knewstubb .. 2 10 

1 2 

Widow Turner 

Thos. Newstubb, Ralph 
Shaw, and Lionel 
Turner . 

1 1 

1 1 

6 2 


Richard Fothen$ill and 
Tlios. Whitfield 

8. d. 

I 8 


Henry Whitfield 

8. d. 

1 6 
1 6 

Thos. Ward 

Thos Whitfield, jnr 

John Shaw 


Mr. Robt. Braithwaite ... 



\V. Whitfield 

II ft 

Richard Shaw 


Thoe. Waller 

Matt Whitfield 

6 1 
..11 MI I.. 

Thos. Tunstall 

5 8 

1 8 

James Fothergill 


John Fothergill 

. 2 2 

Thos Kiiewstubb 


1 2 

Edward Shaw 

Edwd Fothergill 


W. Shearman 

The tenement let to Hy. 
Hugh Fothergill and 
Wm. Fothergill 


John Shaw 

Rd. Tunstall 

Robert Shaw 

Henry Shaw 


W. Gibson 

6 8 

1 6 
1 6 

Jno. Knewsttibb 


Rowland Fothergill 





Robert Shaw 

John Hugginson 

Tlir*! \Vli-i v*yn 

01 A 

Thos. Tunstall 

W. Dent 

Brian Hugginson 

. 1 2 

Widow Birtal 

Widow Wliarton 

3 8 

Widow Shaw 


3 4 

Geo. Hanson 


Thos. Dent 

.. 1 

Adam Shaw 

Widow Wliarton 


Anth. Shaw 

John Wharton 


Dr. Bum says : " 
about 3 10s. a year. 

51 62 
The ancient salary of the chapel was 
' And the foregoing amounts to about 

* Sec Appendix, p. 121, for note on derivation of this, and some of the other names. 


that sum, commenced, no doubt, by certain payments which 
landowners in the dale had agreed to make when the chapel 
was founded, and Canon Simpson is of opinion that the 
original list may possibly be found in the Registry at 
Carlisle, and would most likely give us the date of the 
present foundation of the chapel. Here, I may add, that 
there are those hearing me who a few years ago saw a copy 
of such a list signed by Robert Hunter, avowedly taken from 
a list much older. I have endeavoured to unearth it, but 
have been unsuccessful. I fear it has been destroyed.* 
It w r ould appear from this that we cannot trace the sub- 
scriptions to the minister earlier than 15i3. Still there 
is nothing in Robert Hunter's testimony to discredit the- 
possible existence of an earlier list. The subscriptions of the 
people continued until the year 1810, except that they had 
diminished with the increase of the chapel endowments. In 
the Terrier of the chapel lands I find the following : " Item ; 
The inhabitants of Mallerstang pay yearly to the Curate 
for his use the sum of two pounds seventeen shillings and 
elevenpence." This is the last record I possess of any 
contributions being raised by the people. However, the 
minister does not seem to have suffered on that account, for 
whilst Rowland Wright had eleven pounds a year plus the 
people's three pounds ten shillings, the Rev. Jeffery Bowness, 
in whose time the Terrier of 1810 was made out, received 
altogether ninety-four pounds, taxes included. 

* Since delivering the above I have had the good fortune to meet with 
another copy of the list of wages payable to the minister, of the same date, in 
the possession of Mr. Thos. Blades. His copy, however, has, in addition to the 
list, the following valuable note: "I have also a similar account by a Mr 
Wright," [Mr. Moore's predecessor, I judge, Mr. Rowland Wright] "dated 
October, 1609. In both accounts there seems to be n reference to an account,, 
dated October, 1543. I am, yours, &c., 



In 1867, the date of the last Terrier, there is no record of 
subscriptions ; but I read : " These three estates," at Cawtley, 
(larsdale, and Sedbergh, the combined rents of which 
amounted to 157, "constitute the whole of the property 
belonging to the living of Mallerstang. They are free from 
tithes, rent charges, and all payments whatsoever." And 
the present provision for your minister in this year, 1882, 
is, I understand, much better, which is as it should be; 
inasmuch as the wise man says, "Better is the end of a 
thing than the beginning thereof." 

In the year 1670 Archbishop Sheldon addressed a circular 
letter to all the bishops of his province, " commanding them 
to take notice of all Nonconformists, holders, frequenters, 
maintainers, and abettors of conventicles, especially of 
preachers or teachers in them ; and of the places where they 
were held : ever keeping a more watchful eye over the cities 
and great towns, from whence the mischief is for the most 
part derived unto the lesser villages and hamlets," &c. 
Canon Simpson informs me that in the year 1676, after the 
issue of Archbishop Sheldon's letter, the following names 
were returned from Mallerstaug as amongst those who obsti- 
nately refuse or wholly absent themselves from the Com- 
munion of the Church of England at such times as by law 
they are required : 

Thorn. Wright, and Dorothy hia wife. 

J. 0. Knewstubb. 

Hen. Whitfield, jnn., and his wife. 

Eliztli. Grosedale. 

John Shaw, and Agnes hia wife. 

Thos. Knewstubb, and Elizth. his wife. 

Wm. Shaw, Cocklake. 

The foregoing were Nonconformists. Where they met for 


worship we know not, though the fact, coiild it be ascer- 
tained, would doubtless be interesting to you. We need not 
be surprised to learn that there were Nonconformists here ; 
they were at that time numerous in the adjoining dale of 
Ravenstonedale, where they enjoyed the ministry of the 
Rev. Christopher Jackson, of Magxll. Coll., Camb., who had 
been ejected from the Church at Crosby Garrett. Calamy 
tells us in his Nonconformists' memorial, "that he lived 
meanly upon a little estate in the parish of Ravistonedale, 
preaching occasionally." He adds: "Some minister who 
had conformed once telling him that he had a bare coat, he 
made this answer, ' If his coat was bare, it was not turned.' " 
This dry and pithy retort is in itself characteristic of the 
Ravenstondale people. From the fact that there was con- 
siderable intercourse between the two dales, and that the 
names of Mallerstang in the foregoing list are identical with 
those of Ravenstonedale, I think it likely that they were in 
deep sympathy with each other on this question. Moreover, 
at that time Philip, fourth Lord Wharton, was living at 
"Wharton Hall, just beyond the boundary of your dale 
towards Kirkby Stephen ; and it is known to most of you 
that he was a distinguished Nonconformist. It is not my 
business or intention to enter upon the controversies of 
those sad and troubled times, except that I think it only 
fair to add that whilst the endeavour of the heads of the 
Church of England was then to make the gate of admission 
to the Church as strait as they could, the desire is now to 
make it as wide as possible. 

The following is a list of the ministers of whom we have 
any record : 

Rowland Wright. Clerk. 1667. 

Robert Moore. 1671. 


After this we come to a gap which, for want of infor- 
mation, we cannot fill up. 

Thomas Gascoigne. Clerk. 1740. 

Lancelot Pattison. Clerk. 1754. 

Jeflery Bowness. 1761. 

John Bird. Clerk. 

Wm. I'.ir.l. do. 

John Fawct-tt. do. 1819. 

Robert Robinson. do. 1844. 

Wm. Almvick. do. 1878. 

The Rev. R. Robinson, your last incumbent, was known 
to myself. He was a kindly man when I made his 
acquaintance. He once informed me that in the year 
1835 he was the "Wolvcrhampton Lecturer, which was 
certainly an honour. He was a clergyman of the old 
school, who took an interest in the secular as well as 
spiritual interest of his charge. He never ta\ight the day 
school, but paid a schoolmaster from 25 to 30 a year 
to do it for him, which was supplemented, I understand, 
for some time by a committee who, in order to secure 
the services of a duly-qualified man, made it up to 50 by 
subscription. He was the son of the well known Rev. Dr. 
Robinson, who conducted a high class school in Ravcnstone- 
dale, and of whom the Bishop of Carlisle (Bishop Law) said 
to your late minister : " Your father, by his college school, 
kept a light for the Church of England in your part of the 
county of Westmorland which, but for him, would have 
been in a dark and destitute condition." Your minister was 
born and brought up in Ravenstoncdale, and for his native 
parish he ever cherished, I can testify, almost a romantic 
love everything and everybody from Ravenstonedale 
pleased him ; and, at his express wish, his remains now lie 
in the churchyard there. 


It would not be in good taste for me to characterise your 
present incumbent, except to say that in all nay relations 
with him I have ever found him courteous and gentlemanly. 

Soon after the appointment of your present incumbent, 
the chapel, which had got out of repair, was renovated and 
reopened on the 8th of May, 1879, after it had been closed 
for six months. The pulpit at the north side of the Com 
munion table was lowered, and the reading desk removed to 
the south side. The Communion rails were new. A new 
floor was laid down. The gallery at the west end was 
taken away. A heating apparatus was put in ; also new 
outer and inner doors. A vestry was made and suitably 
furnished, and all at the expense of Sir J. H. Tufton, now 
Lord Hothfield, the patron of the living. And may your 
church ever remain, what I believe it is to-day, a source of 
bright, gospel light. 

The following are the sources of the chapel's endow- 
ment : 

1. An estate, the original endowment of the chapel, 
situated at a place called Wards in Cautley, in the parish of 
Sedbergh and county of York, given by Lady Ann, Countess 
of Pembroke, &c., the rent of which is 32.* 

2. An estate called Little Town, in Garsdale, in the parish 
of Sedbergh, from money given by the Earl of Thanet, 1714, 
and Queen Anne's bounty. Rent, 65. 

3. An estate, situated at Gill, in the parish of Sedbergh, 
from money (400) given by the late Lady Gower, 1772, 
and added to the bounty of Queen Anne. Rent, 60. 

It is the opinion of Canon Simpson that no regular 
incumbent was appointed until after the grant of Queen 
Anne's bounty; before that it was a chapel of ease to the church 

*The above is taken from the terrier of the chpael lands, 18G7. 


at Kirk by Stephen. From the same authority I also learn 
that the three townships of Mallerstaug, Naitby, and 
Wharton formed one of the four divisions, each of which was 
entitled to appoint a churchwarden of the parish church of 
Kirk by Stephen, and so long as church rates were levied, 
Mullerstang had to contribute its share to the mother 
church. It still pays tithes to the vicar of Kirk by Stephen, 
bestowed originally by St. Mary's Abbey, York, and was 
commuted in the year 1842 at 62 per annum. There are 
no rectorial tithes, and never were, which proves that the 
land in Mallerstang was generally pasture and meadow. 

Seventy years ago, the inhabitants, finding it a long way 
to carry their dead to Kirkby Stephen, petitioned the Bishop 
to consecrate a burial ground near their own place of 
worship. The first interment was that of Margaret Moore, 
and took place July 15th, 1813. She was aged 82. Through 
the kindness of the vicar, the Rev. W. Alnwick, I have 
looked through the register, and have been surprised at the 
evidence which it furnishes of the longevity of the people. 
I select one page, and take the names seriatim as they 
occur, i.e., in the exact order in which the burials took 

Dec. 28. Buried Mary Ward of Outhgill. Aged 91. 
31. Elizabeth Brunskill of Cocklake, Aged 86. 

Feb. 4. Margaret, widow of Hugh Blenkhorn. She 

died iu Ingram in the parish of Aiagarth 
and county of York. Aged 87. 

Mar. 7. Richard Fothergill, late of Sand Pot He 

died at Southwaite. Aged 86. 

"Here I should say that I received the firat intimation of this page from the 
late Mr. G. Blades. This family have kept a private register of the burials in 

M;illcrM:iiig Churchyard from the beginning. 



June 9. Buried John Metcalfe of Aisgill, late at Hazlegill. 

Aged 87. 

16. Robert Atkinson of Blue grass. Aged 92. 

22. Anna Rennison, Cocklake. Aged 76. 

Aug. 11. Mary Brown, Tarn House, Ravenstonedale. 

Aged 78. 

There is a sense of completeness that the graveyard 
God's acre, as the Saxons called it surnmnds the chapel. 
It obviates the necessity of funeral journeys to Kirkby 
Stephen through all kinds of rough weather, which the late 
Geo. Blades told me he was old enough to remember ; and, 
moreover, it is a satisfaction to yo\\ to have the remains of 
your dear ones lying in your midst. 

From the recollections of inhabitants I learn that the 
chapel door was of double oak, very massive, with a sort of 
ring for a handle or sneck. The windows were glazed in 
lead, with iron bars across to protect them. Inside the 
chapel there was a gallery at the west end. The seats were 
made of oak, and some of the backs were beautifully carved. 
The pulpit and reading desk were likewise of oak. There is 
a chalice and plate that, were presented by the Rev. W. 
Williamson, Vicar of Kirkby Stephen, and likewise the large 
Bible and Prayer Book used in church. In the bottom 
entrance of the chxirch there used to be a stone let into the 
wall, with a round hole hewn out of the stone, with an 
outlet to pour the water out that had been used at baptism. 

The half of the incumbent's fees for burials, christenings, 
and churchings, xised to be claimed by the vicar of Kirkby 
Stephen ; and at the death of every landowner 8s. 6d. was 
paid to the vicar as a mortuary fee. Every Easter Tuesday 
the vicar of Kirkby Stephen preached in the chapel, and, 
after service, examined the registers and received the fees, 

MAI.I.KH.MANC; KollEBT. 4-"") 

and afterwards the incumbent and churchwardens dined 
with him at the King's Head, Outh-gill. The vicar of 
Kirkby Stephen provided four bottles of wino yearly for the 
Sacrament. The vicar of Kirkby Stephen sent his clerk 
every Easter to collect dues, 3d. for every communicant and 
so many eggs each house, likewise .">d. for every smoke in 
the farmhouses. 

There are three books kept in the iron chest which used 
formerly to stand in a recess behind the pulpit. The 
Registers commence in the year 1730. There used to be a 
library belonging to the Chapelry of Mallcrstang. The books 
were well bound, aud had a paper insido with Mallerstang 
CliajKl Library written upon it. The subjects generally 
treated upon Theology. The burial ground was consecrated 
by Bishop Goodenough on the 9th of July in the year 1813. 
The school was in an upstairs room in the chapel. The room 
is small, and badly lighted. Miss Fawcett says in her recollec- 
tions : "In the year 1819 my father was appointed curate 
of Mallerstang at a stipend of .50 a year, and out of this 
small income he had to teach the school. Hero many of the 
old dalesmen received a plain, practical education, and had 
instilled into them the principles of honesty and uprightness, 
under his care. And many of the old farmers will tell you 
with pride that the new system of education, with their 
Board Schools and iiew-fangled ways, are not able 
to turn out such scholars as parson Fawcett did." From 
a subsequent communication, Miss Fawcett also says: "The 
tables, with the Commandments and Lord's Prayer and 
Creed, over the communion table, were painted and 
re-lettered by John Moore, of Mallerstang, the father to the 
present Moores of Ravenstouedale. I believe the people 
used formerly t<> sit on benches in chapel. When my father 


was curate, the chapel was re-seated with pews. There xised 
to be a gallery at the west end of the chapel, but the hand 
of change has been laid on the old building, and all these, 
like the good old times of former years, have disappeared. 
The parish clerk was John Fothergill, or rather John at 
Green (for he hardly knew his own name), and old Joe 
Atkinson, the sexton. These were two notable characters, 
in their day, in the dale ; and when old Atkinson had to 
leave his house at Shor Gill to come to Outh-gill, a distance 
under three hundred yards, he told my father he could not 
imagine what he had done that he should be transported. 
Such was the love they had for their old homesteads. The 
late Bishop, Dr. Waldegrave, preached in Mallerstang Chapel 
in August, 1867, to a crowded congregation. His subject 
was the brazen serpent, and his sermon will long live in 
the remembrance of the people. The present Bishop, Dr. 
Goodwin, visited Mallerstang in 1874, but has never 
preached in the chapel. He expressed himself much pleased 
with the simplicity and romantic beauty of the valley." 


IT is not my intention in these lectures to enter with 
anything like detail upon the forest laws. You will see 
that it is sufficient for my purpose to say that they 
were framed by William the Conqueror, and adopted soon 
after the Norman Conquest. The whole of this part of the 
county was given to Ranulph de Meschines, one of the 
knights of William the Conqueror ; and the laws of the 
forest here were no doubt modelled on those of his august 
master. Nicholson and Burn, in their " History of West- 
morland," say : "Also in the tenures of many of the manors, 
there were certain services respecting the forests ; as to keep 
airey of hawks for the lord's use, to herd the lord's hogs 
during mastage season, to watch with nets or dogs at such a 
station." Whether such oversight of game was a condition 
of tenure here or not I cannot say, although the fine of 
20 each, levied on Thomas Knewstubb and others, for 
killing a deer in the forest of Mallerstang so late as the year 
1665, and to which I called your attention in the first lecture, 
was very severe, when you think of the much higher value of 
money in those days. Happily, however, that period has 
gone, and although your forest has never been disforested, I 
understand, practically it makes no difference to you. There 
is no one living who ever remembers to have seen a deer on 


the hills ; and the lesser game also have disappeared before 
the advance of cultivation. Indeed the very term forest, 
which at one time gave your dale its pre-eminent distinction, 
has disappeared. Who would ever think now-a-days of 
speaking of going to Mallerstang forest 1 Invariably it would 
be Mallerstang, or, if speaking in the dialect, Mauston. 
Those of you who have not read Whitaker's " History of 
Richmondshire," will be glad to peruse the following extract, 
which bears directly upon the forest which once existed here. 
He says: "After all the encroachments of cultivation in 
Swaledale since the time of Doomesday, much forest ground 
remained, connected perhaps with the largest tract of Avaste 
in South Britain. The forests of the Earl of Richmond, 
besides that of Wensleydale, comprehended that part of 
Stainmore included within the parish of Bowes, all Apple- 
garth, and Arkengarthdale. These were afterwards reduced 
to the New Forest of later date, as it name imports, than 
the rest, and lying wholly in the parish of Kirkby Ravens- 
wath. North-west was Lnne [Lunds] Forest, and beyond 
Stainmore and Mallerstang in Westmorland. Southward 
lay Bishopdale Chase connected with Longstrathdale in the 
West Riding, and all were ranged by herds of wild deer, the 
noblest chase of our ancient hunters, whose pursuits were 
certainly the best preparatives for war both to the knight 
and his steed. Of these the New Forest alone subsists even 
in name. The Duke of Leeds is ranger." Here I should 
add that up to within the last few years the sum of 11s. 2d. 
was paid annually out of the poor rates to George Lane Fox, 
Esq., called " the Duke of Leeds' money." For some time 
I have been unable to learn its meaning or design ; the 
foregoing extract makes it clear. It was originally a fine 
paid to the ranger of the forest. There is one paragraph 


more from Whitaker with which I should like to furnish you, 
us it is decidedly to the point. He continues: "But of 
this wild extent of waste, a great part becoming the property 
of the Crown, and in consequence liable to neglect and 
depredation, Swaledale, which was carefully protected by the 
Wharton family, became the last refuge of the persecuted 
deer, which remained in considerable numbers northwards 
from Muker as late as the year 1725. With the deer 
vanished their ancient refuge and browse, the woods which 
were- gradually consumed by the smelt mills, for after the 
warm and sheltered gills were stripped, the stags pined for 
want of their accustomed winter food, of which many died, 
while the rest fell an easy prey to poachers. After the 
nobler pursuit had ceased, hawking and netting of grouse 
was in use in the year 1725, when shooting-flying was 
introduced to the great astonishment of the dalesmen." 

Although Mallei-stang is a township or chapelry of Kirkby 
Stephen it is distinct as a manor. The Court book now in 
the possession of the bailiff, Mr. Thomas Blades, which 
contains the entries of the admittances made from time to 
time of the tenants of the lord of the manor into the estates 
of Mallerstang, bears date on its first page, 1742. The 
three or four pages following are taken up with the laws of 
the manor. These laws are the result of a dispute which 
Earl Sackville had with his tenants in Westmorland about 
their fines after the death of the Earl Thomas. After a 
long contest in Chancery, a trial at bar in 1739 was directed 
to be, by a special jury of the County of Middlesex [in 
which eleven witnesses were produced by the tenants from 
Westmorland whose ages together amounted to a thousand 
\rurs] on the two following issue??, viz, : 

1. Whether by the custom of the respective manors of 



Brougham, Appleby, Brugh under Stainmore, Pendragon, 
Kirkby Stephen, Kings' Meaburu, Langton, Mallerstang, 
Knock, Sowerby, East Stainmore, South Stainmore, Scatter- 
gate and Burrel, Woodside, Moorhouses, Burgate, Burgh 
Over, and Burgh Nether, on the death of the last general 
admitting lord, a reasonable fine to be assessed at the will 
of the lord, not exceeding two years' value be payable ; or 
any other and what fine ? 

2. Whether by custom of the said manors, on the death 
or alienation of the tenant, a reasonable fine to be assessed 
at the will of the lord, not exceeding two years' value, be 
payable, or any other and what fine 1 The verdict of the 
jury was that such fines according to the yearly value were 
not payable. But that first, by custom of the same manors, 
and every of them, on the death of the last general admitting 
lord, a fine to be assessed at the will of the lord, not exceed- 
ing ten pence for every penny old rent, commonly called a 
tenpenny fine, is payable ; and second, that by custom 
of the said manors and every of them, on the death or 
alienation of the tenant, a reasonable fine to be assessed 
at the will of the lord not exceeding seventeen penny 
fine is payable. And the same was decreed accordingly 
by the Lord Chancellor Hardv/ick. And by consent 
as to other matters in dispute it was referred to Robert 
Fenwick and Joseph Taylor, Esquires, and such other 
third person as they should appoint to settle the same : 
who made an award, and the same was inserted accordingly 
in the decree." Then follow the manorial laws which have 
been in operation ever since the year 1739. 

1. That the tenants hold their tenements according to the 
ancient custom of tenant right, and as customary estates of 
inheritance, descended from ancestor to heir under certain 


ancient yearly rents, and such general and dropping fines 
[fines of sale] as are settled and ascertained by the order in 
this cause. 

2. By the custom of the said manors upon all admittances 
where the ancient rent exceeds Is. 3d., and no more is payable 
to the steward for every single admittance : and where one 
tenant hath several admittances at the same court, and the 
ancient rent of any one of them exceeds Is., then 3s. is 
payable for the first admittance, and 6d. for every other : 
where the ancient rent doth exceed Is. then Is. only is 
payable for every single admittance ; and where one tenant 
hath several admittances at the same court, and the ancient 
rent of one of them exceeds Is., in such case Is. only is 
payable for the first and 6d. for every other. 

3. That the tenants have a right to open quarries within 
their own estates, or in the wastes of the manor, and get 
stones for building or repairing their houses or fences, or 
other necessary uses upon their estates, without licence of the 
lord or of his steward ; but may not open quarries, or get 
stone out of quarries in lease or opened by the lord without 
such licence. 

4. That the tenants have right to cut up, take and carry 
away turf, peat, heath, furze and bracken or fern, upon the 
wastes for fuel and thatching without such licence. 

5. That the tenants have right to plow and make such 
husbandry of their lands as they think fit, without such 

6. That the tenants have a right to lease or demise their 
tenements for any term not exceeding three years. 

7. That all absolute sales or alienations ought to be by 
deed poll, or indented ; and the same to be presented at the 
next court, in order for the purchaser to be admitted on 


payment of droping fines, " Femes covert " interested in 
lands alienated to be examined privately by the steward. 

8. That the tenants may mortgage for any term not ex- 
ceeding three years without licence or fine ; but when the 
mortgage(e) is admitted he shall pay a droping fine [i.e., the 
fine of sale]. 

9. That the tenants may without licence or fine exchange 
lands lying intermixed in common fields for lands of equal 
:value in the same manor ; so it be with the approbation of 
the lord or his steward. 

10. That the tenants may cut down and sell underwood 
growing in their respective tenements : and may cut down 
and use any other wood or timber for repair of their tene- 
ments, hedge boot, plough boot, cart boot, estovers, and other 
necessary uses, provided the same be set out by the lord or 
his steward (the same to be without fee) in 20 days after 
request in writing, attested by one witness, and if not set 
out within that time the tenants may cut down and use the 

11. That the lord may fell timber provided he leave suffi- 
cient for repairs, necessary boots, and estovers. 

Some of the foregoing laws are still in force, and others 
are obsolete, being out of harmony with the spirit of the 
present age. There is no danger, however, of these being 
revived under the wise and liberal rule of the present lord of 
the manor. In the year 1808 the tenants of Ravenstonedale 
purchased their freedom of the lord of the manor, and 
perhaps I may be excused for suggesting that the tenants of 
Mallerstang should, with the consent of the lord of the 
manor, imitate their example. Feudalism rendered its 
service in its day, but that day has gone, and all the 
influences of our age are working in an opposite direction. 


The fines of the lord of the manor amount to about 45 per 
annum. His Court is held at Kirkhy Stephen once a year, 
and is presided over by his steward. One jury " homage 
jury" is held for Mallerstang, composed as far as can be of 
owners of property in Mallerstang. One jury also is held for 
Kirkby Stephen, and a grand jury is constituted out of the 
two, Malk-rstniiL.' and Kirkhy Stephen being represented in 
equal proportions, i.e., six for each. At this Court admit- 
tances are made either by descent or alienation, i.e., by eale. 
From the Court book I learn that up to within the last few 
\v.-irs, when an encroachment of the common had been made 
by one of the tenants, the lord's rent upon it, together with 
grassam and joist, were determined upon. In the present 
day no such encroachments are allowed. It is entirely 
beyond the scope of these lectures to give any lengthy 
extracts from the Court book. Still it may interest you to 
hear the first few entries. After the following intimation 
"May 6th, 1743. After the rental in the first page was 
signed by the jury, the verdict was delivered to the steward, 
and the following tenants were admitted tenants " we 
read : " Mr. Lancelot Pattinson, son and heir of Thomas 
Pattiuson, Esqre., deceased, was admitted tenant of several 
mcssauges and tenements, with the finable rent of 3 5s. 2d., 
grassam and joist, 1 Is. 4d. (2) William Hutchinson was 
admitted tenant by deed of purchase from Lancelott Hutch- 
insou of a messuage and tenement with the finable rent of 
1 13s. 4|d., grassam and joist, 3s. 4d." (3) Ralph 
Milner was admitted tenant by deed of purchase from John 
Bousfield cf a messuage and tenement with the finable rent 
of 12s., grassam and joist 6d. (4) John Bainbridge was 
admitted tenant by a mortgage deed from Mary Rudd of a 
messuage and tenement with the finable rent of 18s. (Hd., 
grassam and joist 3s. 3|d. 


The entries are all of a very business-like character. 
The farms are usually given in case of admittances. Admit- 
tances usually specify the name of the farm or farms. The 
originals with the signatures, and in many instances more 
amplified particulars, are in the possession of the lord of the 
manor. Interspersed with the decisions of the Court revised 
lists occur of those who were liable to pay rent to the lord 
of the manor. The first in the book is dated October 23, 
1754, and is as follows : 

" The finable rent the Tenants were admitted tenants to 
their estates with, to the Right Honble Sacville Earl of 
Thanet at a Court held the 23rd day of October 1754 for 
assessing the general fine by William Gorst Gentleman 
steward. Also the grassam and joyst due out of each 

Finable Rent. Grassam & Joist. 


Finable Rent. 

Grassam & 


d. Pk. 



John Wharton 






Thomas Dent 





Philip Wharton 





Thomas Ward 





Thomas Ward 




Thos. Gascoigne Clerk 




Isabel Wharton 





James Fothergill 




Richard Morland 


64 2 



John Fothergill 





Thomas Ward 





Lancelot Pattison, clerk- 






Richard Fothergill 


!! )' 

John Hutchinson 





Agnes Whitfield 


Thomas Garth waite 



Edward Metcalf 



Anthony Ward 






Adam Robinson 




John Shaw 







Finable Rent. 



1 6 
1 13 












5 4 

9 I." 
19 11 
18 03 


Eleanor Robinson 

Matthew Robinson 

William Hutchinson 

Agnes Winn 

Joseph Fothergill 

William Fothergill 

William Grainger 

John Fothergill 

Anthony Fothergill 

John Atkinson 

Richard Dixou 

I<aiali Fothergill 

Richard Balderstone , 

Win. Guy 

John Steward 

John Bainbridge 

Jane Metcalfe 

Margaret Ellens 

Thomas Whitfield 

James Shaw ,, 

William Shaw 

John Fothergill 

John Scaif 

Michael Scaif 

Henry Hugginsou 

John Shaw 

Bell Parkin 1 

Henry Shaw " 

Henry Shaw 

Elzie. Shaw, jun 

John Shaw 

Kichard Scaif 

Elizabeth Shaw 1 

Mury Ewbank 16 2 

Robert Blenkam 

Ann Cowperthwaite 

Robert Parkin 2 

William Parkin . . 








Grasaam k Juiat. 
. d. Pk. 


3 4i 

1 9 2 




1 6f 

2 8i 

3 3| 



3 6 


1 5i 

2 2 

}> i) 

> >, 

2 11 

" ", 5 

, 4 2 



Finable Rent. Grassani & Joist. 

a. A. Pk. s d. Pk. 

Robert Jonson ,,93 . 11J 

Benjamin Shaw ,,46 ,, ,, 5i 

Jonathan Shaw ,,76 10i 

William Winn 192 3 8 

Thomas Tunstall 11 1 1 2 

John Tuustall 12 6 1 1J 

Brian Hugginson 15 2 1 

Brian Hugginson 071 1 2| 

Robert Hugginson 10 6 ,,16 

Edward Hazel 13 5 ,,28 

Samuel Shaw 098 10J 

In the foregoing list mention is made of charges iii 
grassom and joiest : the meaning of grassom is grassing 
upon the common, and joiest agistment or cattle gates ; 
these are not subject to lords' fines. Also the plack is 
mentioned, a small coin which owing to the diminution in 
the value of money, has gone entirely out of use, as the 
farthing is going out of use in our day. Mr. Garthwaite, to 
whose MSS. I have referred before, copied the following from 
a Kendal paper, dated 1813. "Tradition says some brass 
tokens were coined at Keudal about the year 1656 called 
placks, and states that three of them were of the value of a 
halfpenny." On the plack the Reverend W. Thompson has 
furnished me with the following excellent note. He says 
" The plack was a copper coin formerly current in Scotland. 
It was of the value of one-third of an English penny. 
The word is derived from the French plaque a thin piece 
of metal. It is of frequent allusion in Scottish literature. 
I quote one out of several allusions in Burns : 

" There's ae wee faut they whiles lay to me, 
I like the lasses Gude forgie me ! 
For mony a plack they wheedle frae me, 
At dance or fair." 


Another from Anderson's Cumberland ballads : 

" At Carel, when for six pounds ten 

I Belt twea Scotty kye, 
They pick'd iny pocket i' the thrang, 

And deil a plack had I." 

No doubt the name had its origin in Scotland, although it 
seems to have been locally applied also to the Kendal Trades- 
men's Imiss tokens, a description of several of which is given 
in Nicholson's "Annals of Kendal." He says (and this 
agrees with Mr. Garthwaite's extract), " Tradition calls these 
pieces placks, and it is stated that three of them were of the 
value of a halfpenny." 

The following is the last revised list of tenants given in 
the Court book, from which you will see that whilst the 
tenants numbered 70 in 1754 the names numbered 30 in 
1880. They are as follows : 





and Joist. 




A s. d. 

8. d. 

John Grimshaw 

2 15 

, 6 94 

ditto ... . 

2 14 




, 5 114 

99 J9 


Anthony Metcalf (in trust) 

., 18 

V 4r 

**** J 

11 2 it 

ditto (intrust) 

9 , i \J 



2 54 

)? 99 


ditto late Elizh. Cleasby 

,, 12 

u J 





2 6* 

Wni. Cleasby late Anthony Metcalf 

2 6 


9 2| 

>i ii 

Thomas Cleasby (Ridding House) . . . 

i, 1 


11 11 Ii 

ii it 

Abram Dent late Alice Hunter 

,i 8 


11 ii 10i 

ii ii 

Abram Dent late Isabella Dent 

,, 15 


,, 1 H 

ii it 

George Blades late Peggy Blades ... 



ii ii 

George Blades 

2 10 


, 4 54 

George Blades late Dixou 

ii 1 

** A 


99 a 

Thos. Blades late Anthony Morland 

,, 13 


',', i li'i 

ii it 
ii ii 

ditto late Robert Hutchinson. 

,, H 

,, i H 

ii it 

ditto late Ann Atkinson 

,, 5 


ii ,, 1 

11 n 

ditto late Ann Atkinson 

1 2 


,, 2 94 

11 11 

ditto late Ann Garth waite ... 

,, 8 


1 U 

ii it 

* Incroach. 



Thos. Blades late Peggy Blades 

ditto late Joseph Throup 

James Atkinson, late Robert Atkin- 

Henry Walley late Sarah Robinson. 

Matthew Robinson 

Matthew Metcalf 

Robert Burra late Matthew Thomp- 

ditto late ditto 

Robert Fothergill 

Jane Fawcett | , , ,, ,_, 

Mary Fawcett \ late Mar y Fawuett - 

Jane Fawcett late Mary Fawcett ... 

Ann Fawcett 

Eliz th Fawcett 

Mary Fawcett 

Jane Fawcett 

John Grainger 

Philip Harrison 

Agues Ann Thompson late John 

Eleanor Shaw 

Joseph King late Abrahm Dent . . . 

Thomas Mason late John Dickinson 

Midland Railway Company late 
George Blades 

ditto late John Grainger 

ditto late John Grimshaw 

ditto late ditto 

ditto late A. E. M. & J. Fawcett 
ditto late Jane Fawcett... 
ditto late Anthony Metcalf 
ditto late ditto 
ditto late Abraham Dent... 
ditto late Jane Fawcett ... 
ditto late Robert Burra (in 
ditto late A. E. M. & J. Fawcett 


8. d. 

,, 7 10J 
,, 1 

1 1 64 

1 2 10J 

4 5 3J 
1 18 

6 6 

5 7| 

, 5 71 

5 7| 

., 5 74 

1 11 

18 1 

1 6 

7 6 


2 14 

3 4 
1 4 
1 3 

1 6 
1 3 

and Joist. 
s. d. 

i 04 

s. d. 

12 71 

,, 4 31 

>. n 104 

i> * 




5 9f 

., 2 8| 

)) 2 




2 6 

* Pasture Rent. 


Also amongst the admittances there is one entry which 
shows that the subject of it must have produced considerable 
excitement at the time, to draw aside a chronicler who in 
every other instance is so colourless and indifferent to what 
is passing. It is this : " At a court holden by adjournment 
the 21st day of May, 17o4. The reason of this court not 
being kept at the usual time was occasioned by the great 
contested election for the burrow of Applby betwixt Lord of 
Thanet and Sir James Lowther, which election continued a 
month, and at the shutting up of the books Lord of Thanet 
had a majority of 13 votes." Evidence is furnished here of 
one of those election struggles which at the time engrossed 
so much attention, but has long since been forgotten. 

The last admittance but one is of Mr. Thomas Blades, 
dated October llth, 1882, to the estates of his father, Mr. 
George Blades, recently deceased. Mr. Thomas Blades also 
succeeds his brother as* bailiff of the manor, and to his 
kindness and courtesy I am indebted for much valuable 
information in these lectures. 

The following is a copy of the written record of the 
admittance into the Court Book, and as it is the last, at 
this date given, I will furnish it in full : 

The Court Leet, and Court Baron of the Right Honorable 
Henry James Baron Hothfield of Hothfield, Lord of the said 
Manor held at the Black Bull Inn Kirkby Stephen within the 
MM Man.. ron Wednesday the eleventh day of October 1882 


by Edward Heelis Esqr Steward of the said Manor 

The names of the Jurors to enquire for the Lord of the Manor afore- 
said and between Tenant and Tenant for Malleretang 

Thomas Blades Foreman 
Robert Fothergill 
Abram Dent 
Thomas Cleasby 
John Thompson 
Robert Troughton 

John Clark 
John Harrison 
John Iveson 
James Savage 
Lancelot Fairer 
John Dodd 

Who being sworn and charged, Present and find as follows, 
* See Appendix, page 12:.'. 


We the Homage Jury of the Lordship of Mallerstang present and 
find George Blades deceased, and Thomas Blades his only surviving 
Son and Customary Heir of All that Messuage and Tenemant consisting 
of a Dwelling House and Other Out Buildings and several Closes of 
Land thereto belonging at Angerholme Also a close of Land Called Low- 
Holme part of a Tenement called Ingends containing by estimation 
four Acres and five perches be the same more or Less 

Also a messuage and Tenement Situate and being at Ingheads con- 
sisting of a Dwelling House two Barns and several Inclosures of Land 
with the Apurtenances in Mallerstang within the said Manor of the 
several yearly Customary Rents of 2 10s. 2d. Is. 8d. and 5s. Grassam 
and Joist 4s. 5gd. and sixpence and Other Dues Duties and Services 
Finable Rent 2 16s. lOd. 
Grassam and Joist 4s. ll^d. 


We also present and find that Matthew Metcalf by Deed dated the 
30th day of December 1881 hath Alienated to John Bland Davis all 
that Messuage and Tenement and several Closes or Inclosures and 
parcels of Land theirunto Belonging Called Southwaite (formerly 
Winn's) Also All that Messuage and Tenement and several Closes of 
Land called Castletliwaite (formerly Wards) containing all together 
42 Acres 1 Rood and 19 Perches or thereabouts, with the Apurtenances 
in Mallerstang within the Said Manor of the yearly customary Rent of 
1 2s. lOJd. Grassam and Joist 2s. 2fd. and two Placks and other Dues 
Duties and Services 

Finable Rent 1 2s. lOid Placks 
Grassam and Joist 2s. 2Jd. 2 


We now come to the roads. The present road through 
Mallerstang is modern. It was made under an Act sixth 
year of George IV., cap. 12, 1825, and was dis-turupiked a 
few years since. The course of the old road, and for which 
I have the authority of the late Mr. Geo. Blades, was as 
follows. These are his words : " It crossed Hell Bridge out 
of Yorkshire into Westmorland, over Hell Gill Woad to 
Woad* End, down Woad Side to Elm Gill. Thence along 

* The word "woad" is said to be a corruption of "wold," and on the word 
wold, Webster says in his Dictionary : " Wold, in Saxon, is the same as wald and 
weald, a wood ; sometimes perhaps a lawn or a plain." 


on the common to Thrang Bridge. Thence along down, the 
fields to Ivlen. Across the Eden to Shorgill. Theuce 
through the fields to Sand Tot. Thence down the common 
to Birkett,* Thence across the Eden to Wharton Park." 
The following is another contribution also on the roads from 
the same authority ; and so quaint and graphic is it that you 
would be sorry for it to be omitted. He says : " The pack 
horses used to come into Mallerstang from Cotterdale ; they 
1 a place called Cotter End, across the common, and 
over Hell Gill Bridge; there they entered Mallerstang, kept 
on the common until they came to Thrang Bridge. Those 
that had set out from Grisedalef came across the common 
until they came to High Shaw Paddock ; they then came 
along some enclosed common ; on leaving that enclosed 
common they entered Mallerstaug Common, thence down to 
Aisgill, and from Aisgill to ThrangJ Bridge, where the two 
parties generally met on their way to the Kirk by market 
with butter in their baskets." Mr. Geo. Blades remembered 
pack horses going from Swaledale to Kirkby Stephen. He 
particularly recollected noticing their wooden saddles, on 
which they tied bags, etc. Here I may remind you that 
there is still an inn at Kirkby Stephen with the sign of the 
Pack Horse ; and when the Mallerstangians used to go to 
Kirkby Stephen to be married, the damsels rode on horse- 
back on pillions behind their trusty swains. Also Mr. Blades 
told me that he remembered "about sixty years ago a Scotch 
drover came into the township with a herd of Highland 
cattle. The man, tired, sat down, and the beasts lay around 
him. On rising to continue his journey he played the bag- 
pipes, and the cattle followed him ! " 

* The place where the birch tree grows, 
t Grisedale, i.e., Dale of the wild boar. 

The radical meaning of this word is hurrying, pressing. 


Whilst we are on this subject of roads, I should add that 
there was also a road that branched off at Aisgill, and went 
over Anger Holme road, and crossed the boundary over 
Scarth Nick, thence down the common in Raveiistonedale to 
Stenners Keugh, joining the old road from Sedbergh to Kirkby 
Stephen at Street. This road is used occasionally still. The 
other road from Mallerstang into Ravenstonedale, and of 
which the writer has in the winter time had troublesome 
experience, branches off from Pendragon Castle, and passes 
over Green Law, on to Ash Fell. 

Previous to the introduction of railways, the road through 
Mallerstang was a great and crowded thoroughfare during 
Brough Hill Fair. It is said that many of the inhabitants 
of Ravenstonedale used to go there to witness the animated 
scene "a miscellaneous panorama of men and things 
defiling through the dale " and that they might lose no 
time, took their knitting with them. Amongst the inhabi- 
tants, I am told, there were some thrifty ones, who, eighty 
years ago, used to go up to Hell Gill Bridge, and set out on 
tables, nuts, apples, gingerbread, sweeties, ttc., to sell .to 
those who were going to or from Brough Hill Fair. At other 
times, however, the road was sequestered and dangerous for 
travellers to venture \ipon, owing to highwaymen three 
especially who lived in the dale. Their names were Ned 
Ward, a native of the dale, who lived at Farclose House; 
Riddle, who was a border man ; and Brodrick, who seems to 
have come from Orton. These men seem to have been 
highwaymen of the magnanimous stamp that is to say, they 
would not rob the poor or any of their neighbours ; indeed, 
though their practices were known, they were in a certain 
sense respected by their neighbours. However, this high- 
way robbery very properly came to an end at last. A robbery 


hiul been committed in which these men were implicated. 
Two officers on horseback went to Shorgill and secured 
Brodrick. They then went on up the dale, and crossed 
Thnmg Bridge, and entered Ward's house, standing only a 
short distance beyond it, to apprehend Ward. He was at 
the time only partly dressed, and asked permission to go up 
stairs and finish dressing. No sooner was he on the upper 
storey than he removed the thatch, got out on the roof, 
descended, leapt on one of the officer's horses, and galloped 
off. Almost immediately, of course, one of the officers was in 
full pursuit on the other horse, which was the better of the 
two. The chase must have been exciting. So Ward galloped 
down Boggle Green, and finding his pursuer close upon him, 
leapt from his horse and crossed the Eden. This his pursuer 
could not do, and so sent a bloodhound in full pursuit. 
Meanwhile- Ward descended the dale, and came to Hall Hill. 
The dog was now close upon him. This, Scaife, a resident, 
seeing from his house, sent a lad to him with a thick stick, 
with which he disabled the dog. Soon afterwards he con- 
cealed himself in a coal level, and from thence, when he 
thought it safe, went to his cousin at Ladfoot. Here he 
clothed himself, and set out for Newcastle, where he worked 
for many years in the mines. Mr. " Joe Steel " saw him in 
Kirk by Stephen long after, an old man; he and his brother 
Kit were together. Brodrick, who had turned king's evi- 
dence, remained in prison for awhile. On regaining his 
freedom he was an altered man ; he became a good and 
useful member of society. He was a mason by trade, and 
built Musgrave Bridge, and the portico and stables of the 
King's Arms, Kirkby Stephen. 

Here I must notice the public houses. Outh Gill had an 
inn twenty years ago. Indeed there had been an inn there 


from time immemorial, its sign was the King's Head. 
Cranberry was also a public house thirty years ago ; its sign 
was the Black Bull. The woman who kept it about a 
hundred years ago was quite a character. Her name was 
Betsy Ward, though she was usually called "Rapsy Bett." 
She had never married. I understand ; but it is said that 
Avhen the Scotchmen were driving their cattle and sheep 
into the Craven districts of Yorkshire, they occasionally 
put up at her house for the night. When they enquired 
l - Where shall we leave our cattle, missus, what part is 
yours?" she used to say, standing with her face to the 
common, and winking as hard as she could, with a peculiarity 
that belonged to her, while pointing to the common, " Put 
them where you like ; all that I see is my own." Such an 
anecdote shows of how much less value land was in those 
days. However, she did recognise the rights of her neigh- 
bours to a share of the common, of which she occasionally 
took a large portion, by giving them a jolly feast at the 
Christmas season. It was really a good feast, tradition says, 
that they did not soon forget. There was a public-house at 
Hell Gill, called The Checkers,* kept by Jemmy Taylor. 
Also there was a beerhouse at Outh Gill, called The Gate. 
Quite modern. It was opened by Mr. John Dickinson. 
The name of the farm, which was The Gate, suggested the 
sign. Under the sign were the words : 

This gate hangs well and hinders none, 
Refresh and pay and travel on. 

There are the following Latin words over a loft outer door 
at Outh Gill (the property of Captain Grimshaw) which has 

* A common sign of a public-house. The arms, I understand, of the Arimdels, 
who were the first to possess the exclusive right of selling foreign wines. This 
was in the reign of Edward IV. 


evidently belonged to an older building ; most likely a 
public-house : 

" Hospes inire jubet justos exire nefaatoe." 
The landlord bids honest folk to enter, and knaves to depart. 

The old inn to which the Latin inscription originally 
belonged stood where the new burn opposite the Smithy 
at Outh Gill now stands. The old building, which had 
degenerated into a barn, was pulled down some thirty years 
There are those who can remember some features, 
such as a brick oven, which testified to its former use as a 
dwelling house. 

The present public-house was built by Mr. John Dickinson 
in the year 1870, when the licence was taken out. Its first 
landlord was Win. Thompson. Its sign is The Castle Inn, 
so called, of course, after Pendragon Castle. A turnpike 
gate used to stand a short distance above this house. 

There were occasional incursions of Scots through the 
dale on their way to the Craven district. Their course was 
by Soulby and Green Law. There is a tradition that in the 
year 1715, while the Scots were coming south to xiphoid the 
claims of the Pretender, " a rnerrie neet " was being held 
here ; the news was announced, with the addition that they 
were marching towards Mallerstang. This had the effect of 
breaking up the party; the men hid their pewter and 
prepared for resistance. 

Some time not long antecedent to 1695, several of the 
tenants of the Lord of the Manor enclosed common, in one case 
at Hanging Lunds, and in the other at Aisgarth alias Aisgill, 
without the consent of the Lord of the Manor. In the year 
1C95 they formally and by deed made their submission to 
the Lord of the Manor, each set of encroachers agreeing to 
pay the yearly rent of 4 to the Lord of the Manor, payable 


at Martinmas and Whitsuntide, to continue for 21 years, 
expiring 16th May, 1716. The following is a copy of the 
deed : 

" We whose names are hereto subscribed customary 
tenants to the Rt. honble. Thos. Earl of Thanet Island &c. 
at Aisgarth alias Aisgill within the forest or dale of Maller- 
stang parish of the manor or lordship of Ky. Stephen in the 
county of Westmld. Having in the year of our Lord God 
one thousand six hundred and ninety four improved, inclosed, 
or walled in parcell of the common or waste ground at Hell 
gill woad near Hell gill bridge called Aisgarth alias Aisgill 
pasture within the said fforest or dale, and made the same a 
a pasture or grassing for cattle without the privity, license, 
or consent of the above said Earl whereby we are trespassers 
to the said Earl and have made ourselves subject to actions 
at law for the same. 

"We do therefore hereby submit ourselves to the above said 
Earl and become farmers and lessors thereoff, and do hereby 
jointly and severally covenant, promise and agree to, and 
write the above said Earl to pay unto the said Earl his heirs, 
executors and assigns the clear yearly rent of four pounds of 
lawfull money of England at the feast of St. Martin the 
Bishop in winter, and the feast of Pentecost yearly by equal 
portions for the same the first payment thereoff to commence 
at Martinmas next. In witness whereof we have hereto set 
our hands the sixteenth day of May in the seventh year of 
the reign of our Sovereign Lord William the third by the 
grace of God King of England, Scotland, France, and Ire- 
land Defender of the faith etc. and in the year of our Lord 



" Signed and delivered on 
stamped parchment by 
Henry Bousfield, Henry 
Shaw, senior, Henry Wh : t- 
field, Robert Atkinson, 
Agnes Shaw for her son 
John, Richard Moreland for j. 
Ellen Shaw, and Wm. Whit- 
field in the presence of us 

Thomas Carleton. 

Richard Waller. 

William Binflosk. 

Thomas Longfellow.* 


Henry Bousfield. 
John Shaw, senr. 
Henry Whitfield. 
Robert Atkinson. 
Agnes Shaw on 

behalf of John 

Shaw her son, 

an infant. 
Richard Moreland 1 

on behalf of 

Ellen Shaw his j- 1 for R. 

sister, being 


Another submission of the tenants on the same date'and 
under similar circumstances, owing to the taking] in of 
Hanging Lunds, was 
"Signed and delivered 

stamped parchment 



William Whitfield, Thomas 
Whitfield, senr., Thomas 
Whitfield, junr., William 
Kirkbride, and Win. Kirk- 
bride for his son Thomas, 
in the presence of us 

Thomas Carleton. 

Richard Waller. 

William Biuflosk. 

Thomas Longfellow. 

Willyam Whitfield. 
Thomas AVhitfield, seur., 

his mark 1 1 

Thomas Whitfield, jun., 

his mark ~f 

William Kirkbride, his 

mark X 

William Kirkbride oiA 

the behalf of Thomas ! 

Kirkbride, his son, f 

his mark 

* The name Longfellow is by no means common ; and its coincidence with the 
name of the great American poet struck me. Through my friend, the Rev. J. 
Whartoii, vicar of Stainmore, 1 learn that when the poet Longfellow was in the 
I,ake District a few years ago, he said in the Assembly Room, Penrith, that he 
was a Cumberland man in two senses i.e., Cumberland in the United States of 
America, and that his family originally came from Cumberland in England. 


Occasionally there were boundary riding disputes by the 
representatives of other manors. These frontier differences 
arose out of a difference of claim in some portion. of the 
boundary. At the boundary riding, therefore, a representa- 
tive of the lord of the adjoining manor, in consequence of 
a notice received from the agent of the other lord of the 
manor, appeared upon the scene at the appointed time, and 
uttered a decided protest when the boundary of the lord of 
the manor whom he represented was invaded and claimed by 
the neighbouring lord. Meanwhile, the lord of the adjoining 
manor, or his agent, went over the disputed portion and 
included it in his boundary. At such points the protests 
were looked for. The present steward of Ravenstonedale, Mr. 
Anthony Metcalfe-Gibson, once told me that four generations 
of Anthony Metcalfes, beginning with his great grandfather, 
had been stewards, and had gone down to one of the 
disputed points of the Raveustonedale boundary at Cautley at 
different times to make a protest, that the claim may not be 
ignored or lost. In 1710, when the representatives of the 
Right Honourable Thomas, Earl of Thanet, met the officers of 
Lord Wharton, who were riding the boundary of Swaledale, 
we read that they were correct, " save that in carrying their 
flag from the said High Seat to ye grey stone in Careless 
Bank the said Earl Wharton's officers surrounded about fifty 
acres of the said Earl of Thanet's waist ground belonging to 
his manor or dale of Mallerstang aforesaid as wee believe. 
And the said Mr. Carleton [Earl of Thauet's steward] then 
told the said Earl of Wharton's officers that in so carrying 
their flagg they carried it wrong, and that the several 
bounder marks above was the true known ancient bounder 
marks deviding the said Earl's said manners and dales ; and 
desired to see the said Earl Wharton's bounder roll, but they 


diil not produce or show any; only the said M. E. Smalos 
showed a paper, in which some of the said bounder marks 
were named." 

From the foregoing it would appear that the protests were 
not merely matter of course affairs, but that they were very 
distinctive and decided. I have also a record of "a stop 
made to Mr. Lowther's officers riding their pretended bounder 
of Ravenstoncdule, adjoining to the Earl of Thanet's manners 
of Kirkby Stephen and Mallerstang, 19th August, 1730. 
The boundary was ridden by Mr. Thomas Whelpdale and 
Mr. James Watson, stewards and agents for Robert Lowther, 
Esqre. They were opposed by Mr. Richard Strother, steward 
to the Earl of Thanct. 

"And the said Richard Strother then told the said Mr. 
Whelpdale, and the company along with him, that the said 
Earl of Thanets bounder marks for the mannor of Kirkby 
Stephen went along from the said hurrock of stones, at the 
out edge of Ash Fell, down through tarn wett mire to 
tarn wet hole, thence to the highway leading from Kirkby 
Stephen to Sedbergh, thence along on that highway to 
Scandall bridge, otherwise Stauerskew bridge, thence up 
Scandall beck to the head thereof, tip between the coal 
shafts by the side of Middletong to where Ky. Stephen 
bounder meets with Mallerstang, thence eastward to Wild- 
bore fell pike, joining to Mallerstang bounder all the way, 
thence by the edge of Wildbore fell next Ravcustonedale to 
the hurrock of stones on Scaudall head, thence as heaven 
water deals to bland stone, and thence to a hurrock of stones 
on Galloway Gates ; and then told the said Mr. Whelpdale, 
and other company along with him, that they ought to ride 
by the bounder marks above mentioned, and discharged 


them from coming within the said early bounder marks, and 
told them that if they did they would be trespassers." 

I have also a record of a "stop made to Mr. Lowther's 
officers riding their pretended bounder of Naitby, adjoining 
to the Earl of Thauet's manner of Mallestang. Augt. 18th, 
1730." . . . And the said Richard Strother then read 
over xmto the said Mr. Whelpdale, and other company there 
present, so much of the said Earl of Thanet's manor or 
Lordship of Mallerstang from the said Mr. Lowther's manor 
or Lordship of Naitby as follows, viz. : Beginning at Water 
gate scar, thence through Sopkeld, otherwise Killing close, 
to a place where a crab tree formerly stood, and was marked 
by Henry Lord Clifford, great grandfather to George Earl 
of Cumberland, as his bounder, near which place, in the 
year of our Lord 1651, when these bounders were rid 
for the Right Honble. Anne, late Countess Dowager of 
Pembroke, stood an ash tree, which upon that occasion 
was marked A. P. as a bounder mark, Thence through 
Ashbank (which is also part of Sopkeld) where an 
house formerly was built, through which house the 
bounder went, thence to the foot of Naitgill by Ravenscar to 
Kitchingill foot, thence up Kitchingill to Tailbrigg Sike, 
thence up Tailbrigg sike to the row of coves, thence to the 
gingling cove, thence through Lampes moss to a greystone 
in Careless Bank on the north east of the fell end. And 
the said Richard Strother then told the said Mr. Whelpdale 
that they ought to ride the bounder of Nateby by these 
bounder marks. But the said Mr. Whelpdale told the said 
Richard Strother that the bounder marks of their bounder 
of Naitby were as follows, and that they would ride that 
way, viz. : From Watergate Scarr up the river Eden to Blew- 
grass, thence along Eden to Agill Sike foot, so up Agill sike to 


Stoney gate that rises on to the fells eud, then over the 
height of ffells eml down in a direct line to .Greystone. 
And the said Mr. Whelpdalc said they claimed all the 
royalties within their said pretended bounder for Mr. 
Lowther ; but one Mathew Robinson one of the said Mr. 
Lowther's truants of Naitby said that when he rode the 
said bounder of Naitby with the late Lord Wharton's officers 
they did not then claim the royalties of a place they included 
within their pretended bounder called the Bells, but only a 
right of common and turbary. Notwithstanding which the 
said Mr. Whelpdale and those along with him rode their 
bounder of Naitby, by the pretended bounders of Naitby in 
the manner they did have included above three hundred 
acres of the said Earl's liberties common or wast ground 
belonging to the said manor or lordship of Mallerstang, all 
which we shall be ready to prove when thereunto required. 
Witness our hands this eighteenth day of August, Anno Dni. 

Tenants of ) Joseph Shaw. Richard Strother, 
Mallerstang. j Thomas Ward. Thos. Busey, 

Chr. Harrison, 
Joseph Thompson, 
Thos. Yeatts, 
John Barnett, 

Charles Hastwell, 
Miles Hutchinson, 
Jos. Thornton, 

The most recent dispute grew out of the construction of 
the Midland Railway. In the year 1869, the Midland 
Railway Company, pursuant to an Act of Parliament, gave 
notice to the landowners of Mallerstang that they would 


take possession of severed plots of land, some of it being in 
dispute. A meeting was held of the Commoners at Kirkby 
Stephen, llth January, 1870. The first point in the dispute 
was the extent of Birket, and the second the rights over it. 
During the trial the former claim was relinquished. 

The nature of the claim on the part of Lord Lonsdale was 
that a deed was executed in 1590, whereby the Earl of 
Cumberland granted to his predecessor in estate [Lord 
Wharton and his tenants] the exchisive right of pasturage ; 
the landowners of Mallerstang contending, on the other hand, 
that the landholders of Wharton had a right with them to 
the herbage, but not an exclusive right, and it was decided 
in their favour. 

The value of the common land of Mallerstang, disputed 
and undisputed, was paid over to the Committee appointed 
by the Commoners of Mallerstang. The question of costs 
has not yet been finally settled. 

The boundary ridings are observed at varying intervals of 
time, not often exceeding that of a generation. The circum- 
stances of these ridings are often those of excitement to the 
male portion of the community, the conspicuous figure being 
at such times the bearer of the flag, accompanied by a 
representative of the lord of the manor, if not the lord of the 
manor himself, and many of the leading men in the parish. 
The last boundary riding of Mallerstang took place on the 
12th day of July, 1865, when Mr. Parkin Blades, and others, 
carried the colours. I understand that Miss Maria Atkinson, 
of Dale foot, rode horseback with the party, being the first 
lady that had accompanied a boundary riding party since 
Lady Anne of Pembroke, in the year 1651, when tradition 
says she not only rode the boundary, but cut A. P. in an 
ash tree which was a boundary mark. 

MAI.U:I>TAM. I-'..I:I->T. 73 

The representative of the lord of the manor at the last 
boundary riding was Edward Heelis, Esqre. The legal 
document marked "G," which, through the kindness of the 
aforesaid Mr. Heelis I can furnish you a copy of, is as 
follows : 

"The boundary of the manor or lordship of Mallerstang, 
ridden and perambulated for Sir Richard Tufton, Baronet, 
l>rd of the said manor or lordship, on Wednesday, the twelfth 
day of July, in the twenty-ninth year of the reign of our 
Sovereign Lady Victoria, by the grace of God of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of 
the Faith, and in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-five. 

1. Beginning at Watergate Scar. 

2. Thence through Sopkeld otherwise Killing Close to a 
place when a crab tree formerly stood which was marked by 
Henry Lord Clifford, great grandfather to George, late Earl 
of Cumberland, as his boundary mark; near which place in 
tin- year of our Lord one thousand six hundred and fifty-one, 
when the said boundary was ridden for the Right Honourable 
Ann, Countess Dowager of Pembroke stood an ash tree 
which upon that occasion was marked A. P. as a boxmdary 

3. Thence through. Ash Bank [which is also part of 
Sopkeld] where a house formerly was built through which 
house the boundary went. 

4. Thence to the foot of Naitgill. 

5. Thence up Naitgill by Ravcnscar to Kitchin Gill foot. 

6. Thence up Kitchen Gill to Taillbridge Syke. 

7. Thence up Taillbridge Syke to the row of coves. 

8. Thence to the Gingling Cove. 


9. Thence through Lamps Moss to a grey stone in Careless 
Bank, on the north east of Fells End. 

10. Thence to the lower end of Seavyman in Ulgill head. 

11. Thence to the north end of High seat. 

12. Thence as Heaven water deals to the south end of 
High seat. 

13. Thence over Little Sleddle head to Gregory Chapel. 

14. Thence along Gregory Band to a hurrock of stones at 
Langill Head. 

15. Thence to the height of Hugh Seat Morville. 

16. Thence as Heaven water deals to the Skaith of 
Skaites. From thence the boundary used to go to Capel 
Mey Skyke, thence down Capel May Syke to Withow Syke, 
and thence to White Birk but disputes having arisen 
touching the boundaries between the Earl of Tbauet and the 
township and manor of High Abbotside and the township 
of Lower Abbotside and manor of Dale Grange otherwise 
Lower Abbotside in the parish of Aisgarth in the county of 
York or one of them, the Commissioners appointed under 
the Act of Parliament of the fifth year of the reign of His 
late Majesty King George the Fourth for inclosing lands 
within the said manors did by their award dated the 
fifteenth day of September 1827 fix and determine the 
same as follows : 

The following is a full record of the decision of Com- 
missioners referred to in Boundary Ridings, 1840 and 1865, 
at No. 16: 

" Abbotside Commons. 

" Whereas an act of Parliament was made and passed in 
the fifth year of the reign of his present Majesty King 
George the Fourth intituled 'An act for inclosing lands in 
the Township and manor of High Abbotside and in the 


township of Lower Abbotside and manor of Dale Grange, 
otherwise Lower Abbotside in the parish of Aisgarth in the 
county of York.' And whereas considerable doubts have 
arisen and existed touching and concerning the boundary 
between the said manors of one of them and the manor of 
Mallerstang hi the parish of Kirkby Stephen in the co. of 

" Now we Jeremiah Coulton and Thomas Bradley the 
< 'uiamissioners named and appointed in and by the said act 
having given due notice of our intention to ascertain, set 
out, fix and determine, the said boundary to the several 
persons interested therein in the manner required by law and 
having met pursuant to such notice at the house of Mr. 
Robert Brunskill the Bull Inn at Shaw Parrock in Lunds in 
the parish of Aisgarth aforesaid on Monday the twenty 
seventh day of August last, and on several subsequent days 
and times by virtue of several adjournments of our said 
meeting, and having heard the several parties interested 
therein or their agents or solicitors, and having examined 
various witnesses upon oath touching and concerning the said 
boundary, and having viewed and inspected the same as 
claimed by the Lords of the said manors respectively, and 
the owners of lands and tenements within the same, have 
ascertained and set out, and do fix and determine the same 
to commence and begin at a place called White Birks, and 
to proceed from thence direct to the water of Hell Gill, and 
so up the said water to the first sike (on the east side 
thereof) above Lamb Folds, and from thence in a direct line 
as the same is now staked out to the Skarth of Skaitbs and 
from thence in a direct line as the same is staked out to the 
boundary of the manor of Muker in the parish of Grinton, 
in the saiil county of York which said boundary is parti- 


cularly described and delineated in the map or plan thereof 
hereunto annexed. 

" Dated the fifteenth day of September one thousand 

eight hundred and twenty seven. 



17. From the said Skaith of Skaites in a direct line to the 
first Syke (on the east side thereof) above Lamb Folds. 

18. Thence down Hell Gill water to the White Birks 
where the dispute ended. 

19. Thence up Stubbing Rigg to Middle Gill, otherwise 
Smithy Gill Howe. 

20. Thence to a hurrock of stones at the east end of 
Swarth Fell, called Swarth Fell pike. 

21. Thence to a hurrock of stones in Galloway Gates. 

22. Thence as Heaven water deals to Blandstou. 

23. Thence to a hurrock of stones on Scaudall Head. 

24. Thence to the pike on Wildbore Fell. 

25. Thence to the top of Mickle Arke. 

26. Thence along Stoney Gate to Merepott. 

27. Thence to the great cove on Greenlaw Head. 

28. Thence to the head of Fothergill Beck. 

29. Thence down Fothergill Beck to Eden Water. 

30. Thence up Eden Water to Water Gate Scar. 

This boundary was ridden and perambulated in the 
presence of us. 

Edwd. Heelis, junr 

George Blades. 
Wm. S. Fulton. 
G. H. Bailey. 
W. Wilson. 
J. Grimshaw. 

John Dickinson. 
Alex. Hogg. 
Thos. Mitchell. 
Mark Ellwood. 
John Metcalfe. 
Edwd. Forsyth. 



Robert Medcalfe. 

John H. Scott 

James Allan. 

Thos. Atkinson. 

Robt Atkinson. 

Wm. Richardson. 

John Richardson. 

Joseph Metcalfe. 

James Ellwood. 

Joseph Ellinson. 

Matthew his X mark Metcalfe. 

Stephen Atkinson. 

Wm. Allen. 

John Richardson. 

Matthew Metcalfe. 

John his X mark Atkinson. 

William Harper. 

Parkin Blades. 

Wm. Balden. 

John Richardson, junr. 

Matthew Muckelt, yeoinan. 

George Outran. 

John Morland, junr. 

Frances Maria Atkinson. 

Joseph Barker Hind. 

James his X mark Graham. 

MichL Morland. 

Anthony Allen. 

William his X mark Mounsey. 

John Dalton. 

Richard his X mark Dent 

Wm. Fothergill. 

James Wright 

Parkin Blades. 
George Currah. 
John Richardson. 
Joseph Parker Hind. 

John Richardson. 
Wm. Wilson. 
Matthew Metcalfe. 


Notice is hereby given that the boundary of the Manor 
or Lordship of Mallerstang in the County of Westmorland 
will be ridden and perambulated by the Agents and Tenants 
of Sir Richard Tuftou Baronet, Lord of the said manor, or 
Lordship on Wednesday the twelfth day of July next and 
that they will commence the said riding and perambulation 
at a place called Watergate Scarr by nine o'Clock in the 
forenoon of the said day when and where all Lords of the 
several adjoining manors or Lordships and all other persons 
concerned may attend if they think proper. 

(iiven under my hand this twenty first day of June 1865. 

Steward of the said manor or Lordship. 

Copies of the above notice were inserted in the Kendal 


Mercury of the twenty fourth of June and the first and 
eighth of July 1865 and in the Cumberland and Westmore- 
land Advertiser of the twenty seventh of June and the fourth 
day of July 1865. 

I hereby certify that a true copy of the above notice was 
affixed by me on the door of the parish Church of Kirkby 
Stephen and on the door of the chapel of Mallerstang the 

twenty seventh day of June 1865. 



I do hereby give you notice that the boundary of the 
Manor or Lordship of Mallerstang in the County of West- 
morland will be ridden and perambulated by the Agents and 
Tenants of Sir Richard Tufton Baronet, Lord of the said 
Manor or Lordship on Wednesday the 12th day of July next, 
and that they will commence the said riding and perambu- 
lation at a place called Watergate Scarr by nine o'clock in 
the forenoon of the said day, when and where you may attend 
if you think proper. 

Given under my hand this twenty-first day of June 1865. 

Steward of the said manor or Lordship. 

Copies of the above notice were delivered as follows : To 
the Reverend John Winn one of the Lords of the manor of 
Griesdale and to Henry Thompson Esqre. Lord of the manor 
of Uldale on the seventh day of July 1865 ; and to Thomas 
Cleasby and Matthew Thompson Esqres. Lords of the manor 
of White Birch and to Matthew Thompson Esqre. another of 
the Lords of the manor of Grisedale on the tenth day of 

July 1865. 

Bailiff of the said Manor or Lordship. 


The ]><Tanil dilation commenced at about nine o'clock in 
the morning, and ended at about four in the afternoon. All 
dined in the open air at Watergate Bottom, and the com- 
pany partook of as much food and drink as they liked at 
the expense of the lord of the manor. Such occasions are 
purposely characterised by a great deal of jollity, such as 
wrestling and raemir. Are., that they may be well remembered 
by the young folks of the party. 

The river will next claim our attention. The name given 
to it by the Romans was Ituna. Its present name, as you 
know full well, is Eden. The derivation of the word Eden 
is a matter of some uncertainty. According to one deriva- 
tion, it means, as a compound, water and dale, i.e., water of 
the dales or valleys ea, water; and den, a deep wooded valley 
(Anglo-Saxon) ; (2) according to others, don (Celtic), water 
or river, and an unexplained prefix ; (3) Phillips (" Rivers 
and Mountains of Yorkshire," page 199) adopts the derivation 
Ed-daiu (Celtic), the gliding stream. In this inquiry, 
however, we must bear in mind that we are analysing 
the word Eden rather than ascertaining the cause why your 
river was called by that name. And in studying this ques- 
tion the obvious inquiry forces itself upon the mind whether 
it has not a distinct relation to the Eden of the Bible, of 
which the previous etymology holds good, and of which we 
read : " And a river went out of Eden to water the garden : 
and from thence it was parted and became into four heads." 
When, therefore, your " rude fathers " gave the name Eden 
to the river which includes also the valley ; whether they 
were Ancient Britons (for the light of God's truth was here 
before the Saxons came), or whether they were Saxons, my 
opinion is that they were acquainted with the Eden of 
Scripture, and that, struck with the beauty of the valley, 


they called it Eden ; and, without flattering you or those 
living lower down the dale, I do not hesitate to say that the 
vale of the Eden is, in the summer season, paradisaical in its 
beauty. The Rev. J. Wharton, Vicar of Stainmore, in one 
of the notes which he has kindly furnished me with on local 
names, says : " The word Eden contains a root signifying 
water, and there are four streams of this name in the 
island." The Eden takes its rise in Mallerstang at Blackfell 
moss, close to the boundary of Yorkshire. Four years ago I 
traced it to its source, in company with Mr. Atkinson 
Metcalfe-Gibson. We commenced from Hell Gill Bridge, 
and a quarter of a mile above it struck down into the bed of 
the stream, and continued in it more or less until we came 
to a point where two streams meet. We followed the one 
on the left hand until it was lost among runnels in the ling. 
The source of the other branch is, I understand, similar. 
Hence the source of the river is called "Eden Springs." 
On what a lofty height it takes its rise, and how wild and 
grand ! Camden says, in speaking of this very spot : " Such 
a dreary waste and horrid silent wilderness that certain 
rivulets that creep here are called Hell-becks, rivers of hell. 
In this part the goats, deer, and stags of extraordinary size 
with branching horns find a secure retreat." On that same 
range two other rivers rise on the other side of the water- 


shed. They are the Ure and the Swale. The Eden runs 
north and falls into the Solway Firth. The other two 
proceed in an easterly direction and find their way to the 
German Ocean. 

The principal small affluents of the Eden in Mallerstang 
are rivulets in Stone-close Gill, Aisgill, Deep Gill, and Thraug 
Beck. In the year 1850, Mr. William Mounsey relatives 
of whom still reside at Carlisle and are respected there 


after he had travelled in Kgypt and other Eastern lands, 
determined to trace his native river to its source. This he 
did, and to commemorate this pilgrimage, had the following 
inscription engraved upon a stone Dent marble and set 
up at, or, more correctly speaking, near, the source of the 
river. The inscription, with its Christian symbols,* is as 
follows : 


<rvv vijvvi <f)i\i]v 'a irarpiSa yatav 

rt raiv a< ' 7^5 fppvr)<i 
ifpio \oyu>(pyov e 

Se ^tv oOev irap^Xdop-tv /ecu Trar>)p KCI 

Itiuere apud ostium suscepto fonte tenus coufecto 
Genio Itunre et nymphis V. S. YESNUOM SUMLEILUG 
peregriuaus X^ r . Martii A.C. MDCCCL. 


" Let us flee with our allies to our dear native land." 

Homer. " Iliad," II., 140. 

*' Seek the channel of the soul whence, or by what means, after 
being the slave of the body, thou shalt raise it [the soul] again to the 
position from which thou wert derived, uniting thy deed to the holy 

[The Greek ia quoted by Coleridge " Friend," VoL III., p. 82 from 
*' Zoroastr. Oracula, Initio. Edit. Opsopocl 1599."] 

* They are, I presume, the symbol of the Trinity, and the Tau (T) Cross of 
our Saviour inverted. 



'' We have a country from which we came and our father is there.'' 
[I do not know the source of this quotation.] 

" Having commenced his journey at the mouth and finished it at the 
source, William Mounsey, a wandering hermit fulfilled his vow to 
the Genius and nyraphs of the Eden on the 15th of March in the year 
of Christ 1850." 

It is not an uncommon thing to find an urn or an obelisk 
at the source of important rivers ; and we can forgive an 
enthusiast for erecting a memorial stone at the source of the 
river beside which he was brought up. For both the original 
and the translation I am indebted to the Rev. W. Thompson, 
of Sedbergh. Mr. Thompson, in his communication to me, 
adds : " I have done the best I can in translating the pre- 
ceding ; but I ought to say that, never having seen the 
stone myself, I cannot vouch for the absolute accuracy of 
the transcription. It was done by a former schoolmaster in 
Mallerstang." He also adds : " I must have been about six 
or seven years old when William Mounsey appeared on the 
scene in Mallerstang. I distinctly remember my admira- 
tion of his fine flowing beard ;" which, I may add, was so 
unusual in those days, that it secured for him the nickname 
amongst the people of "the Jew," by which name he is 
known in the dale to this day. It only remains for me to 
express a regret that Mr. Mouusey failed to have a transla- 
tion of the Greek and Latin inscription cut on one side of 
the stone, as the omission of this led to its destruction, for 
during the construction of the Midland Railway through 
this dale, some navvies were spending one Sunday after- 
noon near the source of the river ; discovering the stone, they 
endeavoured to read it ; failing in this, and finding that it 
was locked up in languages which few comparatively could 
read, they in a fit of vexation broke it into three pieces. If 


I, an inhabitant of Ravenstonedale, may suggest on such a 
subject, it is, that you restore the stone with the inscrip- 
tion, and the translation added thereto. 

Proceeding from the source of the Eden, I must first call 
your attention to the name of its infant bed Hell Gill. The 
general impression is that it was called Hell Gill because it 
is a, deep riven chasm. At the bridge its depth is 60 feet 
of perpendicular rock, its width 10 feet. Beneath Hell-Gill 
bridge there is a lower one, which was the first built, and 
this is called "the devil's bridge," the tradition being that the 
devil built it, that he wore a leathern apron at the time, and 
that whilst carrying the last apronful of stones its string 
broke ! 

No doubt the name of the bridge grew out of the name of 
the gill, a name not uncommon in this district for a concealed 
place; and the story of the devil's building it was an inven- 
tion of the fancy or superstition of the people. From a com- 
munication I had from Mr. Hutchinson, of Kirkby Stephen, 
and who is the owner of Hell Gill farm, I learn that in the 
old deeds it is called Hale Gill, and not Hell Gill. Still, if I 
may give an opinion on this subject, it is, that the old name 
for it is Hell Gill, owing to its being a concealed and awful 
chasm, dark at mid-day, and a most romantic cradle from 
which the infant river emerges on its way through the dale. 
One particular spot near the bridge is called Dick Turpin's 
leap, though there is no reliable tradition that he was ever 
there. About twenty years ago, James Blades, a shepherd, 
who was in quest of sheep, fell into the gill. He was dis- 
covered shortly afterwards, bruised and insensible; eventually, 
however, he quite recovered. 

Should this book fall into the hands of a tourist, I would 
say, visit Hell Gill by all means, and Eden Springs if you are 


a good pedestrian, and return to Outhgill, the village of 
Mallerstang, by the old road now covered over with grass 
and you will be charmed with the wall of rock on either 
hand, and especially Wild Boar Fell, and the view of the 
valley before you lengthening out towards Kirkby Stephen. 
Here I should give the dimensions of the dale, for the 
particulars of which I am indebted to Canon Simpson. 
He says : " In the Tithe Award, the contents of the Parish 
of Mallerstang are given about 1836-7 

Mallerstang Arable land 3 acres, 2 roods, 34 perches. 

Meadow 851 acres, 1 rood, 19 perches. 

Pasture 1053 acres, 5 perches. 

Common 3000 acres. 

Eoad and River 36 acres, 2 w roods, 24 perches. 

Total 4944 acres, 2 roods, 24 perches. 

Of late the land has been much improved by draining, 
and now there is no arable land ; and it appears from the 
Tithe Award that there never has been much, as there is no 
rectorial or corn tithe award ; it is." all either meadow or 

In the foregoing the Common is estimated at 3,000 acres, 
which must have been a guess, as it had not been measured. 
The following are the various particulars of the dimensions 
of the common, river, public roads, and land planted, as 
given in the Ordnance map, and in the schedule thereto 
headed "No. on plan," "Area in acres," andj" Remarks" : 


No. on Plan. Remarks. Area in Acres. 

1. Moor 463-669 

2. Public road 2'585 

3. River, &c 11773 



No. on Tim. Remarks. Area In Acres. 

4. Waste 1'057 

5. Stream '234 

14. Plantation '175 

26. Wood, &c : 3'526 

53. 1-261 

56. part of T393 

72 2-283 

85A. Public road '955 

86. Pasture, &c. (encroachment, and now common 

or waste again) \ 

96. Publicroad -831 

104. Castle ruin 2'494 

127. Underwood -582 

14-2. Occupa'.ion road (Castlethwaite) 1'016 

191. Publicroad 15'287 

194. Waste, c 776 

198. Pinfold -014 

208. Stream -055 

215. Plantation -042 

247. -118 

263. River, &c 16'880 

272. Wood -377 

375. Plantation -118 

431. Wood, &c :: -117 

432. Plantation '-912 

436. Stream '374 

438. River, &c 3'275 

440. Wood, &c -189 

468. -959 

487. Plantation -210 

488. Publicroad -070 

493. Wood, &c 199 

495. Moor (west of Eden) 2274'055 

496. Publicroad 2'151 

498. Moor (east of Eden) 3613'976 

499. Publicroad 4'872 

502. -463 




Acres. Acres. 

1. Moor 463-669 

4. Actually moor 1*057 

86. , -611 

142. (occupation road) ... 1'016 

194. Waste 776 

495. Moor 2274'055 

498. 3613-976 

Total of Common, exclusive of ) 

,,. -, , . 6355-160 

public roads and river \ 

Inclosed land, exclusive of public ) 

roads and river \ 

Public roads, viz. : 

2 2-585 

85A -955 

96 -831 

191 15-287 

488 -070 

496 2-151 

499 4-872 

502 -463 

Total of public roads 27'214 

3. River 11773 

5. Practically part of river "234 

263. River .'. 16'880 

438. 3-275 


Total according to Ordnance Survey 8379'919 

There is a sandstone quarry in the dale, situated at 
Swarthfell. It is not much worked at present, but it has 
furnished a great deal of stone for the roofing of houses in 
this and the adjoining parish of Ravenstonedale. A few years 
ago, a coal mine, on the common, reached by a road from 
Outhgill, was worked, and the coal was used by the inhabit- 
ants of this dale ; but it never yielded much, and remained 


for some time unused. Now I understand that it is 
worked again. 

There is a lead mine at the Bells, at the foot of the dale, 
that was worked by the Peases, of Darlington, at first without 
success ; whereupon the company offered a reward to any of 
the men who might discover a vein or pocket of lead, and the 
following is the late Mr. G. Blades' account of the result : " Jno. 
Scott of Southwaite got up early one morning with the hope 
and determination to discover a pocket in a particular part 
of the shaft where he expected to find it. He attacked the 
spot in question with his pick, and soon found to his satis- 
faction that he had discovered a pocket. Having convinced 
himself of his success, he sat down and smoked his pipe ; 
happy no doubt as a king. The discovery was made known 
to the Peases. They worked it very successfully. The lead 
was found in a very pure state, and some of the lumps were 
so large that it took two or three men to turn them over, and 
when they were split open they shone like silver. One piece 
was sent to Appleby Castle as a specimen of what the mine 
produced. The general opinion is that the Pease Co. for 
many years worked with much profit this now disused mine." 

Mines of copper and tin have also been worked here, the 
fonner at Aisgill moor, where there are, or were lately, the 
remains of a "smelt mill" The tin mine was worked in 
Anger holme woad, by persons of the name of Shaw. But 
neither the copper nor tin mines seem to have been worked 
with any profit, most probably owing to the cost of carriage 
and the want of coal. The refuse stones from the tin mines, 
being of a whitish substance, were sold for stoning hearth- 
stones, by a well-known character in his day, and to whom 
I shall have occasion to refer again later on, known by the 
name of "Joss Dick or Mauston Dick." 


But it is quite time that I called your attention to the 
people those that are still remembered for their character 
or social position and also to the manners and customs of the 
people generally, and the first and most remarkable per- 
sonage is Captain Atkinson. He was captain of the militia, 
and was a man of considerable social influence. He owned, 
I am told, the following estates Dale Foot, New Hall, Mill 
Becks, Winton (occupation of George Winter), and Wharton. 
He seems to have been a zealous supporter of the rule of 
Oliver Cromwell, and as evidence of it, we are informed " that 
when Captain Atkinson, a native of Winton (and hanged with 
two others, April 1, 1664, for being concerned in Kaber plot), 
attempted to choose a roundhead mayor by force of arms, 
the town (Appleby) resisted, and chose a moderate man ; 
and though this man, Captain Atkinson, induced the Protector 
to impose a new charter upon them, yet they kept their old 
one to the last." At the Restoration Captain Atkinson 
adhered to the laws which the nation generally had set 
aside ; and gathering a band of followers together, rose in 
rebellion against the constituted authority at Kaber Rigg. 
He and his men seem to have offered very small resistance 
ere he was taken prisoner, and subsequently tried by a 
special commission as a traitor. In this trial it is said that 
Lady Pembroke was deeply interested, and had set her mind 
on his execution. He was hanged within the grounds of 
Appleby Castle, in the year 1664. The following remark- 
able tradition was told me by Mr. G. Blades, and was 
confirmed by some of Captain Atkinson's descendants : 

On the morning of the execution, a king's officer arrived at 
Stainmore, and asked at the inn. whether there was any 
particular news. Whereupon they informed him that Captain 
Atkinson had been executed that morning. "Why," he 

M.U.I. H:vr.\\<; H>i: 89 

replied, " I have his reprieve in my pocket." His property 
was henceforth confiscated ; and his eldest son, who was 
unmarried, lived with the Earl of Thanet. His widow and 
the rest of his children lived at Dale Foot, where the rent 
paid for a number of years afterwards was nominal, and 
where his descendants continue to this day ; thus reminding 
us that we see displacement from violent causes of social as 
well as geological strata. 

On the other side of the valley, and within sight of Dale 
Foot, is the scat of the Wharton family ; and it is very well 
known that Philip, Lord Wharton, who was a contemporary 
of Captain Atkinson, was as decided a Parliamentarian as he 
was. His estates, too, in the course of three subsequent 
generations, were confiscated in the reign of Queen Anne. 
The descendants of that family, too, are amongst us ; and 
men who bear the name of Wharton, and inherit the 
traditions and blue blood of the race, are to be found not 
only amongst the middle class, but amongst the noble army 
of workers whose arms would be the plough or the scythe, 
and whose motto is, " Industry must prosper." When we 
look at these ups and downs, to be found more or less in 
every district, we are led to attach increasingly less import- 
ance to the accident of birth and station, and more to 
character ; most heartily singing with the Poet Laureate : 
" Kind hearts are more than coronets, 
And simple faith than Norman blood." 

Of those who have gone out of this dale and risen in the 
world, you have only one conspicuous example, and he was 
John Blades. He lived at Lunds, which is a little beyond 
your township; still, his kinsfolk lived here, so that I think 
you may claim him. He went up to London about ninety 
years ago, and through Mr. William Milner, of Tottenham 


Court Road, I learn that it is current at the Guildhall that 
he went to London with the proverbial halfcrown only in his 
pocket; and it is believed that when, on his first arrival, he 
was walking down Ludgate Hill, he asked some one at the 
door of the house of which he afterwards became sole pro- 
prietor, for a situation, he was at once engaged as a porter. 
Evidently he attended well to his humble duties, and by so 
doing was advanced to something better. The late Mr. 
Blades told me that he was for some time a commercial 
traveller of the house, and represented them not only in 
England but on the Continent as well, where he solicited 
orders for cut and ornamental glass of the most sumptuous 
description. The next step in his advancement was his 
marriage with his employer's only daughter and child. 
Owing to this largely, he succeeded to the business ; and from 
the position he afterwards came to occupy in the City of 
London, he must have been greatly respected there. Mr. G. 
Blades had the impression that he became Lord Mayor of 
London, but through the careful investigation of Mr. Milner, 
who is himself related to the same family, I learn that he 
became one of the Sheriffs of London and Middlesex. He 
was a liberal benefactor of the City Guild to which he 
belonged " The Glass-sellers' Company " and he is said to 
have made, at his own cost, the opening from Fleet Street 
to St. Bride's Church, which brought the latter into view.* 

* Since writing the above I have received, through the kindness of Mr. Wm. 
Milner, the following note from Mr. G. T. T. Plowman, one of the churchwardens 
at present of St. Bride's. He says ; "He [Mr. Blades] entered the parish of St. 
Bride in 1779, was Constable in 1787, and Churchwarden in 1S12. He erected a 
tablet in the vestibule of the church as an affectionate tribute to the memory of 
his three brothers. As regards the approach to the church from Fleet Street, 
there is an engraving in the vestry showing the improvement, and bearing the 
names of 21 gentlemen with Mr. Blades as treasurer, and stating that the 
improvement was made by public subscription at a cost of 10,000." It would 
appear that the alteration was effected by a public subscription, but as Mr. 
Blades was the treasurer, he was most likely a liberal contributor to that work. 


You may be interested to know that the office of Sheriffs of 
the City of London and Sheriff of Middlesex is held jointly 
by two persons who are nominated by the Lord Mayor and 
elected by the Livery of the City. The Livery are the freemen 
of the City who have taken upon them the livery and clothing 
and become members of one of the City Guilds, which position 
also gives a vote for members of Parliament for the City. 

The sheriffs are elected for one year. They do not always 
become or seek to become Lord Mayors, their office being 
quite independent, although much associated with that of 
the Lord Mayor. On the other hand, the Lord Mayor, who 
is elected from amongst the Aldermen, must have been 
Sheriff before he can become Lord Mayor. 

The office of Sheriff is analogous with that of the High 
Sheriff of a County ; but the Sheriffs of London, from their 
connection with the Lord Mayor, have to appear with him 
upon many ceremonial occasions, and they share with him 
the cost of the Lord Mayor's banquet and procession. 

The office of Sheriff is also sometimes held by men of 
somewhat higher social and commercial position than those 
who now become Lord Mayors. The Lord Mayor, although 
almost always moderately rich and of respectable position, has 
never, at any rate for many years, been one of the leading 
hankers or merchants of the City, but generally a prosperous 
tradesman. The Sheriffs have occasionally been of higher 

Mr. Blades held the office of Sheriff of London in the 
vi'ur 1813, when another North of England man, Mr. George 
Scholey, of Sandal, in Yorkshire, was Lord Mayor. Mr. G. 
Blades, in his communication to me, remarked " Mr. Blades 
came down from London to see us all, I should think, about 
sixty years ago. I, with others, dined with him at Hawes. 


I should have known him to be a Blades, for he had a nice 
red cheek." His father's name was Thomas Blades, who 
was a statesman in the possession of a farm at West End. 

Of such a career you may be proud, and it should act as a 
splendid stimulus to the young men of the district. At the 
same time do not fail to appreciate the industry and manly 
integrity which one is bound to recognise as features Avhich 
belong not only to this dale but to this county; and 
remember that a field receives its colour not from a brilliant 
flower here and there, but from the prevailing hue of the 
flowers which grow upon it. In other words, whilst you may 
be proud of one who rose to a high social position, it is of far 
more importance that you should keep manifest the evidence 
that you are, as I believe you to be, honest, industrious, 
and true. 


'ALLERSTAXG is iu no way remarkable for its 
archaeological remains, apart from its castle. Still, 
there are some features of interest in it in this 
respect. In a paper read by Canon Greenwell, at Penrith, 
at the first meeting of the Antiquarian and Archaeological 
Society, 1866, I find the following : 

" On May 31st we [Canon Simpson and himself] examined 
two cairns situated in Mallerstang on a piece of haugh 
land, just above the river Eden. The position of the 
cairns is unusual, as it is very uncommon to find them 
placed on low-lying ground. It has been sixty feet in 
diameter. Wo made a partial examination, but did not 
find the interment ; several clippings of flint and numerous 
pieces of charcoal testified to the sepulchral character of 
the mound, and Mr. Simpson and I propose to complete the 
investigation on some future occasion.* About fifty yards 
from this was a smaller cairn, fifteen feet diameter, and one 
and a half feet high. In the centre of this, in a hollow, sunk 
in the surface of the ground, one and a quarter feet deep, 
was the deposit of the burnt bones of a body under a flat stone. 
Above them, on the north side, were the remains of a small 

* Canon Simpson tells me that no further discoveries have been made. 


urn of the type called "an incense cup," much decayed. 
It has been three inches high and three inches wide, and 
has one hole now, and probably had once two, through the 
side. This class of urn, the use of which is very difficult to 
understand, is by no means an unfrequent accompaniment 
of a burnt body. They are visually pierced with two holes, 
sometimes at the top, but as often near the bottom of the 
urn. They also occur without any holes, and sometimes 
with a large number through the side. I have one from 
Yorkshire which has twenty-seven holes in rows of three 
running round the urn. The whole surface of the urn 
from Mallerstang, even to the bottom, is covered with an 
ornamental pattern, made by punctures of a small pointed 
implement. In this cairn we found no flint. 

We at the same time opened one of those rectangular 
mounds, called giants' graves, so many of which remain in 
the district, and which look like barrows, though of a rather 
uncommon shape. Several have been examined at various 
places, all of which showed no signs whatever of their being 
places of burial. They are certainly artificial, but I can 
offer no conjecture as to their origin or purpose." 

Canon Simpson is of opinion that they are bracken stack 
bottoms, as they are generally found near a place where 
that plant seems to have abounded. They are found on the 
side of Smardale Gill, and in Ravenstonedale. When 
examined they have yielded no results. No doubt there is 
great probability in this conjecture ; others incline to the 
opinion that in times remote, so remote perhaps as to be, 
properly speaking, pro-historic, the giants' graves, as they 
have for ages been called, were burial places. 

Captain Grimshaw has in his possession an interesting 
document which furnishes a list of " those persons that is at 

MAI. i. MI-TAN.; I'"!, 95 

full ago within ye fforest of .MallT>tange which is lyable to 
pay yo powle." It is without date, but Captain (inmshaw 
is of opinion that it is about 180 years old; and I should 
think that he is correct. It is niKvrtain what the object of 
the poll tax was, possibly to raise money towards a national 
subsidy, or towards defraying the expense of a levy of 
soldiers; fur Nicholson and 1 1 urn say, "It is a vulgar 
mistake that this county paid no subsidies during the 
existence of the border service, as supposing it to be exempted 
from sn.-h payments merely upon that account." The list 
is as follows : 

(First page.) B . 

"Widdow Atkinson, and one servant, wages 3, & 3 children 8 

Edward ffothergill Ids wife & 2 children at age 4 

Michaell ffothergill his wife & 3 children 5 

Thos. Knewstnpp his wife & 2 children 4 

Richard Hesletoii & his wife 2 

Jefrey Guy & his wife 2 ch 4 

John ffothergill & his wife & 3 children 5 

Daniel Whitfield & his wife 


and one maid seruant j 

Robert Guy and his wife 2 

George Harrison 1 

Widdow Harrison one child 2 

Thomas Whitfield & his wife 2 

Bartholomew Wharton & his wife ) _ 

and his mother \ " 
Robert Brauthwaite Gent his wife j 5 2 

and ! m-mants, one wages 20s... \ 3 

William Shaw & his wife 2 

John Atkinson & his wife ) 4 

and one maid seruant wages 20s. \ 2 

Widdow Shawl child 2 

Henry Shaw and his wife ) 2 

and one maid seruant wages 20s. \ 2 

Row: Wright 1 

Widdow Loadman & 2 children 3 

Tho: Ward & his wife & 3 child . 5 


(Second page.) s. 

Henry Whitfield & his wife 2 

Tho. Dent Senior and his wife 2 

Tho. Dent Junior and his wife 2 

Michaell Wharton & his wife & child 3 

John Wharton & his wife & 2 children 4 

Jonathan Glidall and his wife.. ) 2 

and one maid seruant \ 1 

John Kuewstupp & his mother 2 

Widdow Turner & her daughter] 2 

Thos. Wright and one maid servant 2 

Anthon Bell 1 

Ralph Shaw & his sister & ) 

seruant ) , 1 

John Atkinson 1 

Tho: Kuewstupp & his wife ) 3 

one maid seruant \ 1 

Phillip Wharton & his wife 2 

One maid sarvuant wagis 20s 2 

Tho : ffothergill & his wife & one child 


2 chd 4 


Willm Birkbeck his wife & mother ) 

and his maid seruant wages 20s. \ 

Tho : Wharton & his wife 2 

John Knewstupp his sister & servt 3 

Jeferay fothergill 1 

Widdow Huggiuson 1 child 2 

Briham Hugginson & his wife ) 2 

and seraunt \ 1 

Willm Bulmar & his wife 2 

Tho: Shaw & his wife 1 child 3 

John Hugginson & his wife 2 child : = 4 

Tho: Tunstallfe his wife 3 child ) 5 

And one maid seruant wages 20s. ) 2 

(Third page.) s. 

William Shaw and his wife one child ) , 

and one maid seruant ] 

Widdow Birkdaile & her daughter 2 

Cudbart Shaw & his wife 1 child 3 

Adam Shaw & his mother 2 

Robert Shaw & his wife 1 man J 3 

one maid seruant wages 20s. ) 2 


Henry Shaw & liia wife 2 child 4 

Tho: Blades & his wife 2 child 4 

Matthew VVhitefield & his wife ) 2 

One maid seruant \ 1 

Henry Whit field & his wife 3 child 5 

and Isabea Robinson 1 

Tho Whitfield & his wife & sister 2 child 5 

Widdow shnw & her sonn & daughter 3 

Henry Shaw & his wife 2 

John Knewstuppe 2 children 3 

Rowland ffothergill & his wife & cousin 3 

Witldow Turner 2 

Tho: Thorneborow & his wife) 3 

and one maid seruant \ 1 

John Shaw & his mother 2 child 4 

Hugh Shaw & his wife 1 child 3 

Tho: Shaw 1 

Richard Tunstall & his wife 3 child 5 

Richard Shaw & his wife one child 3 

Willm Shaw his wife 1 child 

one maid seruant ( 

Widdow Dinsdall 1 

John Wharton 

William Shaw is Apointed collector hereof 
by the Commission rs." 

The number assessed I make to be 205, and reckoning 50 
for such as were under the age of 15, make 255. In looking 
at these numbers we must remember that there were in 
early days houses so insignificant, shielings, one might call 
them, that they were passed over in any legal documents. 
The folks who lived in these primitive houses had only a 
field and small garth or pasture, called grassam, attached ; 
indeed, the large pastures of to-day are divided into grassams. 
Their cows were turned out on the common during the day 
and came home for the night. The following are the more 
recent returns of the number of the population and of the 
houses : 


Houses. Inhabitants. 
In 1801 67 314 

In 1813 53 249 

In 1821 243 

In 1831 256 

In 1871, during the construction of the Midland Railway, 583 

In 1881 60 271 

Judging from the preceding figures there has been a 
diminution of the population since 1801, but it has not been 
very considerable. Nevertheless, it is the opinion of the aged 
and intelligent people with whom I have conversed that, 
taking into account the remains of foundations which they 
have discovered, and the houses they know of which have 
gone down, there must have been a considerably larger 
population 150 years ago than at present. I am told that 
at Sand Pot, and at Elm Gill, and at Aisgill, within recent 
memory there were clusters of houses, where now there are 
only two or three in each place, and there are traces of 
others farther back. Mr. G. Blades told me that in 
Sweet Close there was found a hearthstone with peat ashes 
upon it, and also, above Angerholme, a stone and ashes. 
At another place, not far away, stones were being dug out 
for a fence, and they came upon another hearthstone with 
peat ashes ; and the groundwork stone, shewed that it was 
a small house. Very much of the wood has disappeared. 
At one time it must have been considerable, for not only 
are roots constantly being turned up, but the names of 
divisions of the dale, such as Southwaite and Castlethwaite, 
and Hanging Lund bear evidence of considerable wood, and 
in addition to this many of the farms are called after trees, 

such as 

Birk Birch rigg 
Elm Gill 
Hazel Gill 


The following arc the names of fields : 

Ash bank 
Ellers Alders 
Rowantree dale 
Hollin (holly) close 

Of names of places you have Ash Bank, and White Birks 
Hill, and Birkett. 

In the course of time nuich of the wood has been cut 
down, withoiit being replaced by young trees. This process 
is apt to go on here and elsewhere, and so, in the course of 
time, a wooded district, such as yours has been, comes to be 
in no way remarkable for its abundance of trees. There is 
one handsome tree still standing on the land of Mr. Geo. 
Blades, and which he kindly took me to see. It is a syca- 
more, and is the handsomest tree of its kind I know of in 
the district. 

In those days when the popxilation was larger, and your 
fathers were more overshadowed with trees than you are 
now, the habits of the people, from all I can learn, were 
simpler. Knitting was a universal occupation, both for the 
men and women; indeed, it used to be said, when two 
young folks were "wed," that if they were good knitters 
they would do. The kind of knitting was the making of 
pop jackets and caps, such as those worn by sailors. They 
often spent an evening in each others houses, and this 
was called "going a sitting." They sat in a semicircle on 
stools, around the fire, and did their knitting exclusively by 
its light. At supper time bread and milk and cheese were 
brought out and put upon a " coppy " stool. Men as well as 
women engaged in knitting, with which they occupied them- 
selves as they were walking along the road, or in intervals 
when they were shepherding. Their work when done 


they took to James Law, of Outhgill, forty years ago. He 
kept a draper and grocer's shop, and the folks arranged to 
"wear" their earnings with him. He took the knitted 
work to Kendal, or sent it by the carrier. In the spring, 
his wife, Mary, a woman of some character, made a special 
journey to Kendal, and brought back gown pieces, from 
which the women of the dale made a selection, and the 
inspection of the aforesaid gown pieces on the wife's return 
was an event of considerable excitement. For these the 
women paid by knitting during the winter. Into the 
question of the dress of the present as compared with the 
past, it is scarcely my business to enter. For my own part 
I cannot see that any fault can be found with the tweed 
suits worn by our young men, though their fathers will 
affirm that there is nothing like the homespun. Then, too, 
the young girls are, as a rule, comely in their attire, though 
their mothers look back with regret upon the dark blue 
woollen stuffs of the maidens' own spinning, worn in their 
days. Dr. Milner Fothergill, in a paper he contributed to 
Good Words, on the subject of dress, a few months ago, 
contended, and I think rightly, for warmth and siutability, 
two features that should ever be borne in mind. Owing to 
the introduction of machinery, knitting has fallen into 
disuse, and notwithstanding other advantages you are, from 
a pecuniary point of view, losers by the change. In those 
days more money was cleared and saved. Indeed, in the 
dale of Dent, I understand that farms have been purchased 
by this branch of industry, and so essential was it as an 
aid to subsistence, that early in the century, when the revo- 
lutionizing influence of machinery began to be felt, some of 
the inhabitants of your Dale were forced to leave and 
migrate to the manufacturing towns, especially Bradford. 


The dalesmen of the latter end of the last century and 
the beginning of this, were not without their amusements. 
Their favourite recreation was, I understand, fox hunting. 
They dearly loved a chase. I am indebted to Mr. Metcalfe- 
Gibson for the following : One Sunday morning whilst 
Divine Service was being held, the old parish clerk became 
aware that a fox hunt was going on, the dogs being at full 
cry. Being himself a keen fox hunter, he was more interested 
in the hunt than in the service. The dogs lost scent ; this 
was perceived by John Fothergill, the parish clerk. Now 
they are on his track. The clerk excited by the fact said, 
instead of what he should have said in the Church Service, 
"Ah, they have him again." On another occasion Master 
Reynard was run to earth. Some of the men dug down 
until they came to a crevice in the rock, into which the fox 
had crept, when " Fox Willie," a well-known character, put 
his ami in to seize the fox. The men then called out, " Has 
ta got hand." "We've baith got hand, pull away." 
Whereupon he was drawn out by his feet, fox and all. 

I have said that they did their knitting exclusively by 
firelight ; but at some other times they used rushlights. 
Indeed, this was the only light they used, when they used 
one at all. The rushes were cut and gathered on the fell, 
and hung up in bundles upon crooks in the kitchen ceiling. 
For use they were peeled almost, but not quite all round, 
and then dipped in the fat of sheep or rough grease of the 
house that was saved up for that purpose. When the rush 
was ready it was placed in a candlestick which somewhat 
resembled nippers, and as it burnt on, was pushed through. 
The light shed was at the best but feeble, and so did little 
more than make the darkness visible. And yet people in 
well-to-do circumstances \ised the light almost exclusively. 


Mr. Geo. Blades informed me as an example, that the 
grandfather and grandmother of Mr. William Cleasby, who 
lived at Aisgill, did not burn more than one pound of 
" white candles " in the year. I have been told the following 
anecdote of a man who had come from some other parish, 
and saw for the first time a pair of snuffers. He picked 
them up, looked at them, saw in part their design, and then, 
snuffing the candle with his finger and thumb, deposited 
the burnt wick in the box of the snuffers. Then, looking 
up with the air of a discoverer, remarked, " Very ingenious 
things ! " 

As in the adjoining parish of Kavenstonedale, sales were 
called in the church yard on Sunday morning, after divine 
service. Once a year there was " Shoemakers' Sunday," on 
which day the people assembled at " The King's Head," 
and paid their shoemakers' bills. The Sunday fell in August 
on St. Crispin's day, the shoemakers' patron saint, and just 
before the fair at Settle, at which the shoemakers bought 
their leather. The day was characterised by drinking, and 
an amount of holiday dissipation. There was one well- 
known character "Joss Dick" who used to spend a great 
deal of his time, at the season, in cutting down rushes, 
which he sold down the country, as well as stones for 
stoning. Moss besoms, too, were generally used here ; and 
the particular kind of moss being abundant in the dale, they 
were exported. They also made besoms of birch twigs, and 
their creels also they made themselves. Of these things not 
a single specimen remains. A few decrepit spinning-wheels 
are among you, which tell a tale of bygone days, when the 
dale was more self-contained than it is now, and the people 
realised themselves more fully to be a community of them- 
selves, rather than as a fringe of a great population. Your 


gills were haunted, and the impending shadows of the almost 
perpendicular ridge on either side gave an austerity I had 
almost said a foreboding superstition to your fathers. 
" There was the steamlike spray which rose from the waterfall 
on the mountain side in rainy weather, and which popular 
imagination transformed into an auld wife's kettle ; there 
was, too, Rob Roy, who was said to inhabit a cave at Castle- 
thwaite ; and the black hen, which invariably frustrated all 
attempts to unearth the buried treasure a chest of gold 
of Pendragon Castle, by scratching in at night the soil which 
had been dug out by day." Beautiful white ladies, it is 
said, had been seen walking about the ruins of Pendragou 
Castle at the witching hour of twelve o'clock at night. Also 
it was said a headless ghost had been seen coming out of 
the gate before the castle. And as au indication that the 
castle was regarded as the rendezvous of ghosts, I leani that 
two or three of the fields adjoining it are called "Boggles." 
Nor need wo be surprised at this superstition. The desolate 
ruin, with broken windows and doorways, half seen and half 
hidden by bushes, would be likely to suggest supernatural 
visitants to the imaginative and credulous mind. In the 
History of Ravenstoned<de, I had occasion to notice the 
charms the people used, as late as half-a-century ago, to 
ward off evil spirits. Miss Fawcett tells me that in your 
dale, fifty yc-ars ago, when the hearthstone of Deep Gill 
farm house was taken up, the discovery was made of two or 
three brown earthenware bottles, each bottle being full of 
crooked pins, which the residents used as a charm to keep 
off evil spirits. 

I have also had communicated to me many what I may 
call fireside stories, that have been handed down through 
families, and of which [ give a specimen. Two hundred 


years ago a man named Ivesoii, who had " an evil eye " and 
" an unlucky hand," went with his son to get wood. Now 
this Iveson was a man of hasty temper, and it appears that 
on this occasion he returned home with his son dead. His 
wife immediately charged him with having killed the boy, 
but he said that he had been killed by a clog of wood falling 
on him as they were loading the cart. Still his wife persisted 
" Thou's killed him." At that time the law of the land 
was in an unsettled state, and the matter was not enquired 
into. Still the man's conscience accused him, and he was 
heard at times impulsively to cry out, so that he received the 
nickname "Cry." His wife, too, ever after shoxited after 
him, " Thou's killed my boy." Such stories furnish us 
with glimpses of the rude habits of the people. They were 
not civilized, as we recognize the meaning of that word ; 
they were in the main, however, honest and truthful, and 
vigorous. They were self-reliant, and shrewd in their 
business relations, with a sharp eye to the main chance. 
Beneficial changes, however, have come here ; for instead 
of never having a post, or of having it (which was the next 
step) twice in the week,* you can receive and send away 
letters every day. Your houses are lit with paraffin lamps. 
You see the daily papers, and you hear the rattle almost all 
day long of the railway car and locomotive as they run on 
a lofty elevation through your dale. The mediaeval darkness 
has gone, indeed its lingering mist has retired, and you are 
now participating in many of the comforts and blessings of 
the nineteenth century. 

* Mr. John Dickenson and the late Rev. R. Robinson got up a petition 
twenty-four years ago, and it resulted in a delivery on Wednesdays and 


From curly days the children were taught iu the Episcopal 
Chapel by the curate. Mr. Garthwaitc was an exception; 
he was an excellent schoolmaster. And to his painstaking 
care iu getting up and copying local information I am 
indebted for much of the material in these lectures. And 
permit me to say to you, the men and women of to-day, 
that you will confer a benefit on posterity by writing down 
the facts of your own life, and of dale life generally. We 
are all apt to forget that to-day will soon belong to history, 
and a history which is ever becoming more remote and more 
involved in darkness, and you can furnish what will be 
specks of light, and the historical fire-fly, if I may so express 
myself, is not to be despised. 

It was the custom of the boys here, as well as in most of 
the other parishes in the district, to bar out the school- 
master. The elder ones took possession of the school-room, 
and bolted and barred themselves in, the duty of the 
younger ones being to supply the "garrison" with refresh- 
ments, such as gingerbread, apples, toffee, kc. The master, 
not without an inkling probably of what he might expect, 
appeared at the door at the usual time, and finding it 
fastened rapped loudly for admittance with the words, "You 
boys, let me in," uttered in a real or assumed irascible tone. 
But no ; the bravest of the garrison appear at the window, 
and a parley is held. Then the written terms are handed 
out, and I am fortunate in possessing two specimens. The 
first is dated 1740, and is as follows : 

The comments of 
the master. 

" Good morrow, master ! we do understand ) " The more 

That barriiig out hath been on every hand ; l fault." 

Therefore no custom new we mean to raise, ) ~ 

.. . Prove that." 

k or it has been from ancient days . 


This day to play we think it is our due, ) " This I can 

And hope it may not be offence to you, ) allow." 

A month at Xmas we now require, ) " By what law I 

A week at Shrovetide and at Easter we desire. ) do not know." 

The same at Whitsunday it is our right, 
And one thing more to you we have to write, 
All holy days (three in the year to be our rule) 
To attend the chapel, but not appear at school. 

The rod and ferula we shall lay by, 

In hopes that you will not our points untie ; 

And if our tasks should prove too hard to use. ) ,, T ,, 

I may see. 
You will our tender years excuse. 

On what we have writ we think it fit to stand, ) " And which 
But ever must obey your just command : ^ stand ?" 

Pray grant us these, and then we will not fail ) " A mighty monster 
To treat you with a glass of Mallerstang ale. ) to prevail." 

To the order of this paper I subscribe my hand. 
While you obey (as you say) every just command. 


Nov. 18, 1740. 

The other barring out poetic piece I have, is dated Sep- 
tember 27th, 1794, just in time to secure the holiday at 
Brough Hill, to which allusion is here made. It is longer 
and more learned in allusion than the preceding. Its first 
line is the same as that of the piece which I have given in 
my History and Traditions of Ravenstonedale, composed 
by the Ravenstonedale boys for their barring out ; in other 
respects it is different. It is as follows : 

Rules between the master of Mallerstang School and the scholars at 
the barring out. Sept. 27th, 1794. Honoured Master, 

Be not surprised these lines should come to hand. 
The naked truth they'll let you understand : 
We and our jovial crew do all disdain 
These ponderous fetters, and this cramping chain. 

MALI.KIOTANC rol. 107 

As on our beds we all profoundly slept 
Into our chambers great Minerva crept, 
With awful looks there did great Pallas stand, 
Her dreadful /Egis* in her potent hand. 
And briefly thus : " Boys will you labour still ? 
That you have play it is my sacred will ; 
Therefore when you return again to school 
Despise your master's awful sovereign rule. 
Long hath he kept the helm, but now, 
Take //</ the helm and let hiui take the prow." 
Therefore when we returned to school again 
Your birchen sceptre we did quite disdain. 

Then lock'd the door when you did turn your back 

Then we did straight no recreation lack. 

This, and to morrow, sir, we'll have for play, 

Also each feast and every holy day. 

Two days at Brough Hill we hope you'll remember 

That's the first of October and the last of September 

For every new scholar a day we desire, 

It being the old custom we do it require. 

Thursday afternoon we likewise do crave, 

And Saturday afternoon we're determined to have ; 

Twenty eight days at Christmas we have its true ; 

And seven at shrove-tide we claim as our due. 

Also take care that you do punish none 
Until Epiphany be pass'd and gone. 
Sir, these demands are civil, pray consent 
To sign this bill and grant us merriment. 
For recompence whereof we will not fail 
To give you and your friends a glass of ale. 
From what is written we'll not yield one jot, 
Its like the Persian law that alters not. 

In witness whereof we the said parties have hereunto set our hands 
the day and year first above written. 






latent shield that was supposed to turn every one who looked upon 
into stone. 


After this usual and well-understood rebellion on the part 
of the boys, the school duties were resumed, the master 
regarding it simply as one of the incidents of the year. And 
things went on much as they did before, except that the Rev. 
Mr. Fawcett, his daughters laughingly informed me, usually 
gave the scholars a tea on the afternoon of the barring-out 
day ! Mr. Garthwaite was succeeded by the Revs. J. Monk- 
house, James Hunter, and John Fawcett, who were followed 
by Mr. Alderson, Mr. Robt, Fothergill, and others, until the 
passing of the Education Act, which introduced a new 

One thing was obvious that a new schoolroom was 
needed. The bishop had found fault, too, that the church- 
yard should be used as a playground. Several attempts 
were made to raise money to build a new schoolroom, but 
they failed. The names of the Revs. J. Fawcett, J. Brunskill, 
and Lancelot Jefferson, of Brough, must especially be men- 
tioned in this connection. 

Then came, owing to the Education Act, an order to build 
the school according to Government requirement. As the 
landlords could not agree on the mode of operation, a School 
Board was formed. The first members were Messrs. G. 
Blades, J. Steel, Matthew Metcalfe, George Dent, and Philip 
Harrison. They met for the first time after the election, 
April 1, 1876. Mr. G. Blades was elected chairman. The 
members determined upon plans and specifications for a new 
board school, to be submitted to the lords of the Education 
Department. The architect Avas Mr. Smith John Parker, 
of Stricklandgate, the mason ; Thomas Fothergill, Nateby, 
slater ; Wrn. Jackson, Kirkby Stephen, joiner and painter ; 
Robert Armstrong, plasterer ; Thornton, plumber. Cost, 
529. Side by side with this it may interest you to know 


what your fathers thought of the cost of building a suitable 
schoolroom. Through the kindness of Miss Fawcett, I have 
an estimate, drawn up and submitted to a meeting holden at 
Mallerstang Chapel, the 4th day of October, 1826. It is as 
follows : 


s. <L 

To Cutting Ground Works 090 

To Quarrying Stones for 112 Yards of Wall 1 17 4 

To Leading 111 yards of Stones, at 4d. per yard 1 17 4 

To Walling 11 2 yards of Wall, at Is. per yard 5 12 

To Corner Stones and Liutels 226 

To Flaggs and Flagging 630 

To Slate and Slating 920 

To Lime, Mixing Lime, and Plastering 470 

To Work, Workmanship, Timbering, Seating 31 15 

To Glazing Windows 3 12 

To Grate, Door, Hinges, Nails, &c 2 11 

69 12 2 

At a meeting holden at Mallerstang Chapel, on Wednesday, 
the 4 day of Oct., 1826, it was computed the inhabitants 
of Mallerstang would subscribe the sum of 10 

59 12 2 

Rev. JOHN FAWCETT, Assistant Curate. 
JOHN FOTHERGILL, Chapel Warden. 



There is some contrast between 529 and 69 12s. 2d. 
But you must bear in mind that the price both of material 
and labour have greatly increased since then. In 1826 the 
locomotive steam-engine was in its infancy, and no one 
ventured to dream of the revolution it would accomplish in 
society. In 1876 that revolution had come, and the result 


to you was that your school building was more costly. Of 
course the estimated building of fifty years before would 
have been much simpler in its character, much of the work 
would have been not only at a lower rate than it was six 
years ago ; it would have been cheerfully given, and the 
homely economy which I have observed in many depart- 
ments of dale life would have been exercised. However, the 
building in which we are now assembled is in the course of 
being paid for, I understand, and is a credit to the valley. 
The school was opened on September llth, 1877. The 
children had a free tea given them on the occasion. Miss 
Gordon was appointed mistress. The present mistress is 
Miss Mary Jane Lawson. The following may interest you : 
" The Register of Mortgage of the Mallerstang School Board 
pursuant to 10th Victoria, chap, xvi, sec. 75-76. Date of 
deed, August 4th, 1877. Amount of mortgage, 529. 
Mallerstang School Board of the one part, and Williamson 
Willink, Esq., Secretary to the Public Works Loan Commis- 
sioners, of the other part, to be repaid in 50 years, '2'2 11s. 
to be paid on the 4th of August, 1878, and on every 
succeeding year up to and including the 4th day of August, 
1926. The deed was registered August 6th, 1877." 

The Wesleyan Chapel was opened on the first Sunday in 
June, 1879, by the Rev. Mr. Despres. It was erected chiefly 
through the exertions of Mr. G. Dent, the late Mr. Joseph 
King, and others. A Sunday-school is taught in connection 
with the chapel. The foundation stone was laid by Mr. 
Pighills, Mr. A. Dent, Miss Dent, and Miss Thompson. 
A "class" had been held here some time before 1879, and 
the building of the chapel was a necessity to accommodate 
the members of the Methodist Society here. And though I 
am no advocate for the multiplication of little places of 


worship in :i stationary or a diminishing population, of 
course each section of the Church has a right to look after 
its own. 

The following chronicle of the weather, and various inci- 
dents, has been handed to me by Captain Grimshaw, and it 
will, I have no doubt, be interesting to you. It was copied 
from an old book in Captain Grimshaw's possession, which 
belonged at the time to the owner of Sand Pot, Mallerstang : 

" The clrouty somer was in ye year 1737. 
The following year was a very fortherly spring. 
It was on Sunday ye 25th day of February 1738-9 
That we had 2 hifes of Beas yt did bear Loadings. 
On the 15th of June 1745 I was on hesengill woad 
And I see in a quoave [cove] hole a drift of snow." 

On the 15th day of June 1/49 being Thursday, Wild bore fell was 
covered with snow, & likewise Outhgill edge. And that night was 
exceeding hard frost so hard as there was water in dubs frose over. 

In the year 1763 winter was pertuly [particularly ?] wet with plases. 
The most flouds [floods] ever known and ye greatest damage in many. 

In the year 1765 was the great droughty summer. It continued from 
about 5th of May to 31st August. Some few showers now & then. 
Most of ye springs dried up. Castle well we laded, it could not run 
down the gutter, nor betimes out of the well, it stood below the first 
step, it is flagged in the bottom, we watered a cow at Eden out of it. 

1765. In August Butter Firkins was 1 6s. (?) Oatmeal 3s. per peck. 
Wheat 14s. 4d. per boul. A very little crop of hay got, we moed 
it one day and got it the next it was so very hot. 

1776. The greatest sight of blossom ever seen and greatest quantity of 
fruit of all sorts boath orchards and woods that ever was known, and 
finest crops of corn that ever was seen. Apples in ye south contracted 
for Is. per bushell for 17000 bushell. 


In the year 1778 & 9 scarce any snow or frost quite open all winter 
never the like seen. Everything in February as forward as some years 
in May. 

2nd May 1772, A stormy spring hay 6d, per stone and all eat out. 
Hard frost every night this was 2nd May large snow drifts all along 
Outhgill Edge. I fed 2 hives of bees with honey in May 14th day, it 
was so stormy. Oat meal 2s. 6d. per peck. Oats 19s. p. load. Potatoes 
lOd. p. peck. Beef 4|d. per pound. Veal 2f d. p. pound. Good mutton 
4d. per pound. Butter 10s. per stone, Wheat 15s. 8d. per bowel. It 
continued stormy and dry 10th, and frost every night till the 17th of 
May. Then was some warm rain & so continued well. 

1767. llth & 12 March. Jos: Fothergill of Southwaite in Mailer- 
stang had a hive of bees cast boath day and knit, but went to the old 
hive again. 

So ends an interesting chronicle, such as any of you might 
keep to-day. 

The constituted authority of the dale is very much the 
same as that of the adjoining dales. There are two overseers ; 
their names at the present time are Mr. William Bousfield 
and Mr. Richard Mason. There are two surveyors of the 
highways, Mr. William Metcalfe and Mr. John Bellas. There 
is one poor-law guardian who represents you on the poor-law 
board, elected annually. The guardian for this year is Mr. 
James Slinger of Cranberry. Your present poor rate value of 
the township is 3,340. The basis of county valuation fixed 
in quarter session in April, 1879, was 3,750. The game and 
fish, Captain Grimshaw informs me, belong to the customary 
holders. I understand that although you contribute a hand- 
some sum, varying according to the difference of rate, to the 
maintenance of the poor, you have not received any parish 
relief, up to very recently, for the last thirty years. For- 
tunate indeed have been your circumstances, that there has 
not been one amongst you so poor as to need outside help. 


One of my first questions, on enquiring into the social condi- 
tion of the dale, was, " Has the dale no charities 1 No good 
man whose memory it can bless, the effect of whose thought- 
ful munificence some of you are benefiting by to-day 1 " It 
h:is. In the year 1784, on the 8th of May, Geo. Middleton, 
of Sedbergh, bequeathed 100, the interest of which should 
be applied to the giving of bread to the poor in the Church 
every Sabbath morning. The money was well laid out, and 
now yields, on an average, 30 per annum. Lancelot Hunter, 
who died in K31, left 10 to the poor of the dale of Maller- 
stang. This money, too, was laid out in cattle gates, and 
now yields, on an average, 5 per annum. This money is 
given away on Christmas Day to the poor. 

These names are not known probably beyond the limits 
of your dale. Though dead, they still speak. They speak 
words of practical comfort to one section of you, and to 
another of sacred emulation. And though you do not know 
what poverty is in its deepest sense, a recipient of parish 
relief being a rare person as he ever has been in your 
midst, you are not, nevertheless, the inhabitants of so 
happy a valley as to be without those to whom the legacies 
of prosperoiis men of the past are not a source of comfort 
and of help.* Self-contained, in the sense in which your 
fathers were, you are not nor can you be, nor would it be 
good for you but in provision for the poor and less fortu- 
nate, the more self-contained you are the better. 

The Midland railway extension from Settle to Carlisle 
was opened for passenger traffic on the 1st of May, 1876. 
That portion of it which passes through your dale com- 
mences south at Aisgill Moor, and ends at Birket tunnel, 
and during the whole distance there is no station for the 
accommodation of the inhabitants ; this has been found to 

* Bee Appendix, pixge 123. 


be a considerable inconvenience, inasmuch as in the old 
days the traffic on the highway between Hawes and Kirkby 
Stephen was very considerable, and the necessaries of life 
were brought by carriers and dealers almost to the threshold 
of the farmer ; but since the construction of the line the 
inhabitants have been deprived of that accommodation, 
carriers being no longer necessary.* At the present time, 
however, there is, as you know, considerable agitation going 
on in your midst, for the erection of a station in your dale, 
which those of us who are outside, and you especially who 
are inside, see to be necessary. At the head of Mallerstang, 
which is its highest point, the line is at an elevation of 1167 
feet above the sea, and in its entire length it is at a consi- 
derable elevation from the dale. During its construction 
there was quite an invasion of the navvy class, who mostly 
lived in huts at Birket and Aisgill. I understand that their 
moral influence here was not good, to say the least of it. 
By this time I trust that every trace of its baleful effect has 
gone. For some time after the passenger trains had com- 
menced running they attracted the attention of the people 
of the dale, and I have been informed that during the hay- 
time of that year, the haymakers were continually arrested 
in their work by watching them. Then at night they 
attracted as much attention as they did by day, and seemed 
more wonderful, lit up and rushing on, against the sombre 
background of Wild Boar Fell. Now, I suppose, you 
scarcely see them. Meanwhile they are an important 
element of education here. They make you realise that 
there is an England beyond what you see of it. They sug- 
gest travel to you, and furnish yoii with facilities for carrying 
out your wish. They weaken in adult life the rooted feeling 
that your fathers had for the place. The patriotism for the 

* See Appendix, page 1^3. 


dale is not less, but the local prejudice is. In olden times a 
niau who went from Shorgill to Outhgill to live, a distance 
under 300 yards, though another division merely of his own 
dale, asked his clergyman what he had done to be trans- 
ported ? In those days many of the inhabitants were born, 
brought up, lived to old age, and died in the dale, without 
going beyond it. Their world was Mallerstang. Their king 
was Lord de Clifford or Lord Thauet. Their primate was 
the incumbent of the Mother Church, at Kirkby Stephen, 
under whom, in those days, their own minister laboured as 
a curate, and their great sensation of the year was Brough 
Hill Fair. 

Some look back with wistful regret upon " the good old 
times " ; with such I have no sympathy. But I do say, 
that for the race of yeomen, or statesmen, as you call them, 
who are passing away, I entertain a profound respect, and of 
whom only two remain in the dale Mr. Thomas Blades and 
Mr. Philip Harrison and I believe the time has very nearly, 
if not quite, come when something should be done I do 
not know what ; I have no political nostrum on the subject 
when this class of men shall be reinstated ; and that we 
may again see the land, not in the hands of the few, and 
that increasingly as at present, but the many sturdy, self- 
respecting, well-informed and independent men, such as 
many of your fore-elders were; who in the time of commotion 
or change in this country, should it come, would be on the 
side of order, as a tower of strength. 

The readers who have proceeded with me so far, will, I 
am quite sure, thank me for concluding this Lecture with a 
paper by the Rev. W. Thompson, M.A., of Sedbergh. He is 
the curate there, and is withal a scholarly man. He says 


" I have put together a few reminiscences of Mallerstang 
life as I knew it some thirty years ago. Short as is the 
retrospect, it reaches back to the days before the steam- 
engine had puffed away many an old-world notion and 
custom from among us. We had then but little intercourse 
with the great world outside us, and might be regarded as 
the unadulterated produce of the dale, and the genuine 
inheritors of the dialect and traditions of the past. We 
were, in fact, eleven miles or so from the nearest railway- 
station, and many of the older generation lived and died 
without ever having seen a locomotive. A weekly news- 
paper or two found their way into the dale, and were handed 
about until the next number made its appearance and 
entered on a similar circuit. Our occupations were of a 
truly rural nature, the usual routine of a small grazing farm 
being varied only by clippings and sheep-washings, hay- 
making, mowing 'bedding,' or cutting peats and 'flaAves.' 
We were a clannish folk, and not fond of strangers. But 
there were three times in the year when we might expect to 
see them in unusual numbers, and these were always seasons 
of great excitement to the rising generation. The first was 
Outhgill Fair, now numbered among the bygones; the 
second was when the droves of sheep and cattle from Scot- 
land were on their way to the Yorkshire fairs ; and the 
third was about the time of Brough Hill Fair, when for 
several days a miscellaneous panorama of men and things 
defiled through the dale. Some of the more notable charac- 
ters were eagerly looked for every year, and their re-ap- 
pea~ance was hailed with delight. Such was the case in 
particular with that unfailing Brough Hill-er, the man who 
had forsworn the use of a hat. 

" The only resident gentlemen we had among us were the 


] arson and the schoolmaster. The postman and the police- 
man had not yet found us out. If any one thought it 
necessary to write to us, his letter would be helped on some- 
how, generally by some obliging farmer, on the market-day. 
A native constable, periodically chosen by the ratepayers, 
sufficed to keep us in order. He was entrusted with the 
custody of a truncheon, as the emblem and possible instru- 
ment of his office. It bore a strong resemblance to a blue 
rolling-pin, tapered at one end to form a handle, and embla- 
zoned at the other with a gilt lion and unicorn. It was 
occasionally produced for admiring inspection at children's 
parties, but seldom required to be wielded on the field of 
battle, for we were a peaceable people, as a rule, the 
exception being when that bone of contention the best 
share of the fell set us by the ears, and then we felt that 
we might justifiably indulge in a few rounds at fisticuffs. 

" ' Haverbread ' and ' blue-milk ' cheese were our standing 
dishes, fustian and clogs our working-day attire, rushlights 
and farthing caudles our illumination, and we had a rich 
and expressive vernacular, not uuderstanded of the Southron; 
but we managed to live an honest and happy, if somewhat 
homely life. If any one was ill, the doctor was a long way 
off, so we put faith in ' yerbs,' and awaited the result with 
patience ; while in cases of urgency the ladies were looked 
after by an experienced matron without a diploma. We 
seemed reluctant to grow old, and I remember that 'the 
Sycamore lads,'* as they continued to be called to the last, 
were fine specimens of youthfulness at sixty years of age 
and upwards. It was necessary, however, that we should 
die sometimes, and then the whole dale was 'warned' to 
the funeral, and representatives from nearly every house 

Three stalwart bachelor brothers who lived at the farm called 'Sycamores.' 


showed that we took a mutual interest in each others' joys 
and sorrows. 

" Among recollections of boyish interest I may note the 
capture of 'bullyfrogs' and ' tommy loaches ' in Outhgill 
Beck, and the tickling of trout in the river Eden. Then, at 
the proper season, there were strawberries in Shortgill Wood, 
and curiously-streaked snail shells among them withal. 
Blackberries and cranberries sometimes allured us to the 
higher grounds, but ' bumblykites ' and ' brown-learners ' 
were to be had nearer to hand; and even 'choups' and 
' heckberries ' were not always despised. Sometimes we 
were seized with ambition for remoter scenes, when a voyage 
of exploration would be made to the old coal-pit on one side 
of the valley, or to the top of Wild Boar on the other. 

" The Fifth of November was a day much to be observed 
among us, and we visited every house in due order with a 
view to obtaining cash for the purchase of tar-barrels and 
other combustibles. We invariably announced our presence 
by the blowing of horns and the reciting of a time-honoured 
ditty, setting forth the obligation of a proper recognition of 
Gunpowder Plot. It was rarely that we failed in extracting 
the needful coin ; but if such a calamity should ensue, we 
were equally prepared with another poetical effusion, which 
boded much evil to the members of that unhappy household. 
Nor were we, on less public occasions, without our indoor 
enjoyments, when the long winter evenings set in. Our 
elders were at all times fond of 'going a-sitting' to each 
others houses, and too often indulged in ghost-stories and 
tales of the uncanny and the marvellous. I could view 
with equanimity the steam-like spray rising from a waterfall 
on the mountain side in rainy weather, which popular 
imagination transformed into an ' auld wife's kettle,' but I 


had a real dread of Rob Koy, who was said to inhabit 
a cave at Castlethwaite, and of the old black lion, which 
invariably frustrated all attempts to unearth the buried 
treasure at Pendragon Castle, by scratching in at night the 
soil which had been dug out by day. ' Toffee-joins ' were 
rare fun to the youngsters, while at ' merry -neets ' the lads 
and lasses of a larger growth tripped it blithely to the 
accompaniment of fiddle, concertina, or dulcimer, for pianos 
were quite unknown. But of all delights perhaps none 
fluttered the juvenile breast more than the announcement 
that a monster circus or menagerie was about to visit Kirkby 
Stephen ; and though it was five miles thither and five miles 
Lack, the pranks of the clown and the uncouth ways of the 
wild beasts had charms which few 'Mauston' lads could 
resist ; and we lightened the journey with a look at the 
leech-pond at Dale-foot, and with equestrian performances 
on the duiikeys which frequented the roadside near Wharton 

" I have one more reminiscence, and that is connected 
with the school and the church. After entering the porch 
of the latter, a well-worn flight of stone steps led to an upper 
room, in which the children of the dale were taught reading, 
writing, and a modicum of arithmetic. This room always 
bulked large in my imagination, until I lately visited it 
again, when it seemed wonderfully dwarfed in its dimensions, 
and I found it no longer the centre of learning, a brand-new 
Board School having completely eclipsed its glory. The 
church, too, was not the church of my childhood. The old 
longitudinal oak pews had given place to cross-benches of a 
modern pattern, and the towering three-decker had dwindled 
to a mere shadow of its former self. Even the loaves of 
Middleton's Charity, which used to be displayed on one of 


the window-ledges, had secured more eligible quarters in a 
gilded case. A new vestry had broken out ; and I pictured 
to myself, by way of contrast, the dingy surplice which used 
to be laid over the back of one of the pews, waiting to be 
donned in the body of the church. I seemed to hear again 
the sonorous voice of old James Middleton giving out a 
Psalm from Tate and Brady, and pitching the note with a 
preliminary tootle on the flute, while the clergyman took 
that and other opportunities of recruiting his energies with a 
pinch of snuff. I mused on all this, and much besides. 
I could not conscientiously say ' the old was better,' but I 
indulged a momentary pang of regret that so many of the 
visible mementos of my own happy Mallerstang childhood 
Avere for ever vanishing away." 

NOTE. To readers unacquainted with the dialect the following brief expla- 
nations may be welcome : " Bedding," rushes for cattle to lie on. "Flawes," 
turf for fuel, otherwise styled "flouts," or "turves." " Haverbread," oatcake. 
"Blue-milk," skimmed milk. " Yerbs," herbs. "Warned," invited. "Bully- 
frogs," bullheads or millers' thumbs. "Tommy-loaches," loaches. "Bumbly- 
kites," black-berries or bramble-berries. To a Mallerstangian the term "black- 
berries" would suggest black-currants. "Brown-learners," hazel-nuts ripe and 
ready to leave the husks. " Choups," the heps of the wild rose. " Heck-berries," 
the fruit of the bird-cherry. "Going a-sitting," visiting each others' houses in 
the evening for company and conversation. " Toffee-joins," entertainments at 
which a number of young persons resolved themselves into a joint stock company 
limited, for the production and distribution of a panful of toffee. "Mauston," 
the native pronounciation of Mallerstang. 



fOSSIBLY it has become obvious to the reader of 
archaeological sympathies that Mallerstang is parti- 
cularly rich in ancient words. For the meanings of 
many of the following words I am indebted to Canon 
Simpson. Amongst the names of the different divisions of 
the dale there is Anger-holme, pronounced Angram, which 
means fertile meadow. Ais Gill, water gill. The word 
"gill" is Icelandic (gil) for ravine. Hanging Lund, a wood 
on the side of a hill. The word "lund" means shelter, and 
especially from wind. Southwaite, south clearing. Castlc- 
thwaite, the castle clearing. Hazel Gill, the "gill" over- 
shaded by hazel bushes. There are a few hazel bushes still 
there. Elm Gill] the "gill" derived its name evidently 
from an elm tree, or elms that distinguished it. There are 
elm trees about this gill still. Far Cote GUI; the word 
"cote" was applied to any building or shelter, hence "far 
cote" is in distinction from some other. There is also " nar," 
(near) cote gill. The word peat cote, as applied to a building 
to put peat in, is still used on the other side the county. 
Cote Gill Grains ; the word grains means spread out Sand 
Pot, name possibly derived from the river opposite it throwing 
up large banks of sand ; hence a place from which sand 
coidd be obtained. Cove, a hollow place. The same word 
is applied to a small harbour, a part of the shore hollowed 
out by water. There are many coves in Mallerstang, and 
they are distinguished by some characteristic term, such as 


" Dove Coves," "Pike Coves," "Turn-at Coves," "Rowantree 
Coves." There is a beck called "Old Hush." The word 
"hush" is used in the dialect still, as descriptive of a rush 
of water. There are two chalybeate springs in the dale. 
They are situated not far from each other, and on the eastern 
side. The one is High Rigg Well, and the other is near 
Joseph's Gill. Dragon's Den, a spot on Wildboar Fell which 
the dragon was supposed to frequent, and which it is thought 
by some gives its name to Pendragon Castle. A fabulous 
monster that preyed upon men, women, and innocent children, 
and concealed itself in its den whilst taking its repose. 
Great Bell, situated at Dale Foot, 1,230 feet high. There 
are several " bells " in the county e.g., Green Bell in Raven- 
stonedale. Some sxippose that the name is taken from the 
form, and others that it is a Celtic word and a corruption of 
Baal, Baal having been worshipped by the Druids on high 
hills. In the boundary ridings we meet continually with the 
expression, " As Heaven's water deals " a primitive and 
poetic expression for water shed. 

Some of my readers may be interested to know that the 
turnpike road at the division of Yorkshire and Westmorland 
is 1194'8 feet above the sea level, according to the Ordnance 


I have been furnished with "a list of persons who have held 
the office of lords bailiff for the township of Mallerstang for 
the last ninety years, commencing with the year 1793 : 

James Atkinson, Dale Foot, 44 years. 

Robert Atkinson, Dale Foot, 22 years. 

Parkin Blades, Outhgill, 16 years. 

Thomas Blades, Outhgill, the present bailiff, who 
has been in that position for the last eight years." 


NOTE C, PAGE 113. 

There is an almshouse at Appleby for widows, founded by 
Lady Anne, Countess of Pembroke. Amongst Mr. Gar- 
thwaite's MSS. I find the following petition from Alice Collin, 
of Mallerstang, had been presented to the Earl of Thanet : 

" To the Right Honourable Sacville, Earl of Thanet. The humble petition 
of Alice Collin, widow, most humbly sheweth 

" Your petitioner, who is in the 62nd year of her age, is the relict of 
John Collin, of Mallerstang, in the county of Westmorland, and her 
father, Henry Robinson, was a tenant under your lordship in the dale 
of Mallerstang aforesaid. 

" Your petitioner's husband held a small farm of your lordship, and 
with unfeigned gratitude your petitioner acknowledges your lordship's 
goodness having been extended towards her in the continuance of the 
said farm. 

'' Your lordship's petitioner, suffering under afflictions and corporeal 
infirmities, hastened by age, labouring under a weak frame of body (ill- 
supported by a tender constitution), has humbly made bold to implore 
your lordship's benevolent kindness to admit your petitioner into the 
Hospital at Appleby when a vacancy may occur, and it may seem meet 
to your lordship. This, which should your petitioner be so happy as to 
obtain, it will, with the utmost humility, be ever gratefully acknow- 
ledged. And your petitioner (as in duty bound) will ever pray, &c. 

" We, the undersigned, do certify to the truth of the above, and do 
humbly recommend the petitioner to your lordship's notice and protec- 

"Witness our hands thi.s 19th day of September, 1809. 



The petitioner died before a vacancy occurred. 

NOTE D, PAGE 114. 

The inhabitants finding the inconvenience of not having 
a railway station, application was made to the Midland 
Company,' through Mr. W. Lowther, M.P., one of the members 
for the county, who made a representation to the Directors 


of the aforesaid company. Accordingly an inspector was 
sent down, who, after making a careful examination of the 
line and probable traffic, &c., reported. As a result of this 
the manager, Mr. Noble, stated that a station would neces- 
sitate the construction of a road of approach, 500 yards long, 
and a bridge, and that the outlay would not pay. Conse- 
quently the dale folks must wait a little longer. Subse- 
quently an influential meeting of the landholders, presided 
over by the Rev. W. Alnwick, was held in the Board School, 
to take into consideration the question whether they were 
prepared to construct the road provided that the railway 
company would erect a station. The majority were of 
opinion that the landholders would be willing to construct a 
road. Meanwhile the matter was referred to a committee 
appointed at that meeting. 

There is considerable sympathy with the folks of Maller- 
stang in this matter, which has expressed itself in a series of 
interesting and earnest letters, which have appeared in the 
newspapers, from those living within and without the dale. 
We all hope that a railway station at Mallerstang will soon 
be an accomplished fact. To tourists such a station would 
be a great advantage. At present Mallerstang is reached 
from the south by leaving the train at Hawes Junction, and 
from the north by Kirkby Stephen, either on the Midland 
or London and North-Eastern Railway. The northern 
boundary of Mallerstang is 2| miles from Kirkby Stephen. 

In conclusion, I take this opportunity of thanking the 
many people of Mallerstang, whose names I have not 
mentioned, for their kindness in furnishing me with informa- 
tion, and in many ways shewing sympathy with me in this 
work. One marked feature of the folks of Mallerstang is 
warm-hearted hospitality, and I hope it may ever continue. 


It so happens that whilst concluding the MS. of this history 
I am preparing to leave this county for the neighbouring 
one of Lancashire. If I were a poet I would write a farewell 
poem, but as I am not I content myself with adopting, as 
my own, the words of Mr. Alfred Tennyson, and say, " True 
and tender north," farewell. 


Lord Hothfield, 4 copies ; Lord Bective, 12 copies. 

Rev. J. Allatt, 1 copy ; Rev. R. Alliott, M.A., 2; J. 0. Atkinson, Esq., 
E. Armitage, Esq., 8 ; Mr. 0. Allen, Rev. W. Alnwick, Rev. G. W. 
Atkinson, T. A. Argles, Esq., Mrs. Allen, Mr. Geo. Alderson, Mr. Jame s 
Airey, Mrs. Ann Atkinson, Mr. John Atkinson. 

A. J. Burgess, Esq., 2 copies ; J. K. Butcher, Esq., Mr. Jas. Bell, Rev. 
W. Burrows, B.A., Mrs. Beck, Rev. W. Bowman, Rev. J. Brown, B.A., 
Mr. Edw. Beck, Mr. Thos. Bousfield, Mr. J. W. Braithwaite, J. Brun- 
skill, Esq., Colonel Burn, W. Lloyd Birbeck, Esq., 2 ; Amos Beardsley, 
Esq., R. H. Beardsley, Esq., Robert Blair, Esq., Mr. T. L. Buck, H. J. 
Blanc, Esq., G. F. Braithwaite, Esq., 3 ; J. B. Bailey, Esq., Mr. Butt, 
Mr. Jos. Brunskill, Mr. L. Burton, Mr. Jas. Bradbury, Mr. "Wm. 
Bradbury, Mr. H. Beck, Thos. Blades, Esq., 6 ; Mr. M. Burnop, Mr. R. 

J. Cropper, Esq., M.P., 2 copies ; J. B. Cook, Esq., 2 ; J. Carver, 
Esq., 4 ; W. Carver, Esq., 4 ; Miss Carver, 2 ; Mrs. Chamberlain, 4 ; 
Captain J. W. Cameron, Rev. J. Chapelhow, Rev. S. Clarkson, Mrs. 
Copeland, J. F. Crosthwaite, Esq., T. Carrick, Esq., Rev. Thos. Calvert, 
Wm. Cleasby, Esq., 4 ; Mr. Jos. Clark, Mr. Thos. Cleasby, Mr. Marsh 
Clementson, Rev. J. Calvert. 

Sir George Duckett, Bart., 1 copy ; Mr. John Dickinson, 4 ; Thos. 
Dover, Esq., Edw. Dover, Esq., Mr. Thos. Dixon, Miss Dixon, Causeway 
End, A. C. Dent, Esq., Mr. John Dent, Mr. Geo. Dent, 2 ; Mr. Aaron 
Davis, E. B. Dawson, Esq., J.P., Miss S. Dawson. 

Dr. Edger, 1 copy ; Mr. Mark Ellwood. 

J. M. Fothergill, Esq., M.D., 2 copies ; W. Furness, Esq., 2 ; Robert 
Furness, Esq., Mr. A. Faulkener, J. R. Foster, Esq., Rev. E. Forster, 


Miss Fawcett, 5; H. Fell, Esq., Rev. E. H. Raven-Ermcote, R. S. 
Ferguson, Esq., F.A.S., 2 ; Mr. Robinson Fawcett, Mr. Wm. Fothergill, 
Mrs. Margt. Fothergill, 2. 

Capt. Grimshaw, 8 copies ; A. M Gibson, Esq., 3 ; A. M. Gibson, Esq., 
juu., AtkiiiKou M. Gibson, Esq., Thos. Gibson, Esq., M.D., 2 ; Mr. Gray, 
Auti'juarian and Topographical Bookseller, Manchester, 6 ; Rev. W. B. 
Grenside, M.A. 

Hon. G. Howard, M.P., J. Harker, Esq., M.D., 4 copies ; Mr. Hogg, 4 ; 
Rev. J. Holroyd, Mr. W. Harper, Mrs. J. Hewetson, Rev. A. Howson, 
Mr. W. Hutchinson, 2 ; Rev. J. Harrison, Miss Hunter, Mr. John Hutchin- 
son, Mr. J. Hunter, Mr. P. Harrison, 3 ; Mr. Edw. Hutchinson, Mrs. H. 
Hewetson, H. Hewetson, Esq., Rev. J. Hall, Rev. J. Heap, Thos. How- 
son, Esq., Miss Hill, 2 ; F. Hall, Esq., Mrs. Hunter, Robert Hewetson, 
Esq., Miss Hodgson, Jas. Hudson, Esq., J. E. Hargreaves, Esq., J. C. 
Hetherington, Esq., J. Hutchinson, Esq., 6 ; Mr. R. Heygarth. 

J. G. Johnson, Esq., 8 copies ; Rev. D. M. Jenkins, W. Jackson, Esq., 
F.S.A., H. J. Jenkinson, Esq. 

Rev. H. Kendall, Wm. Kilvington, Esq., Mr. Thos. Kirkbride, Mr. 
Ja?. Knewstubb, Mrs. Jane King, Mr. Thos. King. 

Honble. W. Lowther, M.P., 1 copy ; Rev. R. G. Leigh, 2 ; Rev. T. 
Lawson, Rev. J. Lees. 

W. Milner, Esq., 6 copies ; S. Massey, Esq., 6 ; Roderick Maclaren, 
Esq., 2 ; Thos. Mason, Esq., 2 ; Mr. Moorhouse, Rev. H. W. Mote, J. G. 
Mtumsey, Esq., Mr. Thos. Metcalfe Mr. S. Milner, Mr. Massey, H. 
Milner, Esq., J. S. Metcalfe, Esq., Mr. Chris. Metcalfe, Mr. Robinson 
Moor, Mr. L. Mason, Mr. Wm. Metcalfe, Mr. R. Mason, Mr. Edw. 
Metcalfe, Rev. J. A. Macfadyan, D.D. 

J. Nicholls, Esq., 2 copies ; Mr. John Nicholson, Mr. J. W. Nicholson, 
J. H. Nicholson, Esq., M.A., Richard Nelson, Esq. 

Thos. H. Preston, Esq., 4 copies ; Miss Powley, R. Preston, Esq., 2 ; 
Mr. R. Peacock, Rev. W. Pink, Mr. M. Pratt, Mr. W. Potter, Rev. R. 
V. Pryce, M.A. 

H. Richardson, Esq., 1 copy ; H. F. Rigge, Esq., John Robinson, Esq., 
John Robinson, Esq., F.G.S., F. J. Robinson, Esq., R. S. Robinson, Esq., 
J. H. Robinson, Esq., Mrs. Robinson, W. Robinson, Esq., Mr. R. Renni- 
son, Mr. Thos. Richardson, Mr. Adam Robinson. 

Rev. Canon Simpson, 4 copies ; Rev. J. Straffen, 2 ; Dr. Sayer, 2 ; 



Mrs. Slade, 2 ; Mr. R. Shaw, 4 ; Rev. Thos. Slevan, J. S. Smith, Esq., 
Rev. J. H. Sumner, Rev. M. H. Sharp, Jos. Simpson, Esq., Mr. Miles 
Shepherd, Miss Shaw, Thos. Shaw, Esq. 

Rev. "W. Thompson, M.A., 10 copies ; R. Thexton, Esq., 4 ; Mrs. 
Thompson, 2 ; Mr. J. Tanner, Mr. T. Tanner, Rev. W. Taylor, Mr. R. 
Thornborrow, Rev. Canon Troutbeck, Rev. H. Tarrant, J. R. Vaizey, Esq. 

W. H. Wakefield, Esq., 12 copies; Aid. Whitehead, 5; Rev. J. E. 
Whitehead, Rev. T. Windsor, Mr. White, Mr. A. Wharton, Rev. B. 
Wilkinson, Rev. J. Wharton, Rev. H. Wallace, W. Wiper, Esq., 2 ; Rev. 
Canon Ware, Rev. G. F. Weston, 2 ; J. F. Wilson, Esq., Mr. R. Wilson, 
Mr. Jas. Winder, Mr. Jas. Wearing, Mr. Thos. Wade. 

JOHN HEYWOOD, Excelsior Steam Printing and Bookbinding Works, Hulme 
Hall Road, Manchester. 



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